News from Around the School and Hospital
My Way of Giving Back
Secrets of Success
Ward by Ward
The Tension Within Me
Training the Trainers
Belcher Honored as Excellent Teacher
Friend of Hopkins Nursing Celebrated with Visionary Art
Celebrate 2010: the International Year of the Nurse
City Nurse, Country Nurse
10 "Must Reads" for Hopkins Nurses
Love, Honor, and Courage
|Alumnus Reginald E. Bannerman mentors current nursing students, guiding them through rough times.|
Mentoring current students—and helping them launch careers—is a natural part of giving back to the Johns Hopkins University School of Nursing, according to alumni Reginald E. Bannerman, MSN/MBA '03, RN '97, NE-BC, and R. Kevin Mallinson, PhD '01, MSN '97, RN, AACRN, FAAN.
"Hopkins has afforded me great opportunities to excel in life," says Bannerman, director of Nursing, Psychiatry at Children's National Medical Center in Washington, D.C. "Some people may give money, but others donate their time and energy. This is my way of giving back."
Although mentoring Hopkins students takes time, Mallinson agrees it is a natural extension of his commitment to students and to the school where he earned a master's and doctorate degree.
"I had a great experience at Hopkins and helping its students is part of belonging to the school," Mallinson says. "It's something you do as service back to the university."
It's About Networking
"I plan to make an impact and leave my legacy on the program," says Bannerman. This lifetime member of the alumni association regularly meets with students, particularly men entering the profession, individually mentoring them, offering strategies to overcome struggles and guiding them through some rough spots.
He invites Hopkins nursing students to Children's National to get to know the hospital and location in the District of Columbia and offers words of encouragement as they navigate their nursing career choices.
"It's about networking," Bannerman says. "If there's a position open, Hopkins is the first place I look, because Hopkins nurses are always inquisitive. They want to grow and be on the cutting edge. They bring ingenuity."
In addition, each year, Bannerman joins a Children's National recruiter to visit the campus and talk with students.
"It's good for students to know I went to Hopkins and came here and secured a good job," Bannerman says. "If I did it, they could, too. That's what I bring to the table."
Hopkins senior Courtney Shay met Bannerman at a School of Nursing career fair in December as she was helping clean up and carrying the presenters' things out. She took him up on his offer to pass her resume along to colleagues, to shadow him in February, and to discuss her career goals.
"I appreciated his reaching out to me, and I've been extremely impressed and grateful at how responsive and timely he has been in responding to my emails," Shay says.
Bannerman earned his bachelor's and master's degrees at Hopkins and is considering returning for a doctorate of nursing practice degree. He never hesitates to pitch in and assist whenever a student or the school needs assistance.
"When the school calls, you salute and you serve," Bannerman says. "It's a call of duty. Whatever you have now is due to Hopkins. We owe it to each other and to future generations to give back."
|Alumnus R. Kevin Mallinson helps students hone in on their goals and long-term ambitions.|
When Hopkins nursing students ask Mallinson for a hand with their job search, he spends time helping them home in on their goals rather than just snagging the first position that comes along.
"It's mentorship, one-on-one time," says Mallinson, an assistant professor of nursing at Georgetown University School of Nursing & Health Studies in Washington, D.C. "I help them to sharpen their focus."
Mallinson asks them about what jobs they might want, what they know about the facility or organization they are targeting, and how that will fit in with their longer-term ambitions. He advises them to learn about a company's mission and vision, its locations, and partnerships and then to evaluate whether they feel it would be a good fit for them.
"Last year was the first time students struggled to find positions, but all of the ones I helped got jobs," Mallinson says. "I encouraged them to be persistent. Nurses leave and retire. I told them not to give up."
Rather than accept a recruiter's statement that the hospital was not hiring, Mallinson suggests they keep in touch with the recruiter and the nurse manager of the unit on which they hope to work. He advised them to inquire if they can shadow a nurse on that unit for a day.
"Amazingly, positions opened up for those who did that," he recalls.
If students reach out to him for guidance early in their studies, he recom-mends they do something that sets them apart, such as spending a summer working in healthcare in South Africa or in Europe to learn more about the delivery of services in other parts of the world.
"Students should do something to make an employer look at them as a resource, not just someone to fill a vacancy on a unit," Mallinson says. Even if they stay stateside and volunteer, students should "do something health-related and highlight to a prospective employer why they did that activity."
—Debra Wood, RN
In these days of carefully-integrated patient care, nurses increasingly need business skills to do their jobs. They are asked to write business plans, develop and manage budgets, and negotiate—skills they are learning in Johns Hopkins School of Nursing's Business of Nursing (BON) Program and Executive Mentorship Program.
The twist is that their teachers are real-world executives who have spent years in fields like business, technology, and science.
The Business of Nursing
A 10-month certificate program, the Business of Nursing is a partnership between the School of Nursing and the Carey Business School. It teaches post-baccalaureate and post-master's nurses invaluable financial skills. "You cannot think about patient care without thinking about cost today," says BON Program Coordinator Maryann F. Fralic, DrPH, RN. "Nurses know the intricacies of the patient care process better than anything...[but] we need them to have the financial knowledge and language that's going to be incredibly essential to nursing in the future."
Each year, 10 to 24 BON students take courses in topics like finance and managing clinical outcomes in preparation for their capstone class, a course where they integrate their clinical nursing experience with their business skills. Here, students prepare sophisticated business plans that address a real-life healthcare need, such as the development of a new program for their hospital.
The final business plans are presented in the Johns Hopkins Hospital board room—a "very intimidating" space, according to Fralic—to a team of actual high-level executives and trustees, all of whom think from the viewpoint of real-world healthcare and finance executives.
A 2009 BON graduate, Colleen Apostol, RN, OCN, CHPN, worked with two fellow students to develop a business plan for a Palliative Care Pavilion at the Sidney Kimmel Comprehensive Cancer Center. Apostol had recently been hired at the Center as an oncology nurse in palliative care, a new division. "I felt meeting with the patients was the easy part, but trying to build a brand new program was the hard part," she says. "You're asking for money so how do you prove that you need the funds?"
The group presented their findings to a panel of three professionals including Brent Hanson, an executive for 20 years at First Consulting Group, where he focused on the intersection of information technology and healthcare.
Having listened to BON presentations for about four years, Hanson says most students need to trim the details. "Nurses are trained to look for trends, patterns, blips...[But] these are things that have probably long since ceased to be important to people who sit at the executive team or board level," he explains. "It's got to be presented in terms of what is important to the executive...improve the quality, reduce the cost, and every project has its own timeline."
Hanson says it's impossible to develop a business plan that addresses all three of these areas—"I've never seen it in my life," he says—but he tells students to pick a variable that's important to their "buyer," like reducing cost, and focus on that.
Having coordinated the BON Program since its inception, Fralic understands the value of collaborations between students and business professionals. So much so that she decided to give a similar experience to Doctor of Nursing Practice (DNP) students.
Top Executive Mentorship
In 2008, Fralic developed and funded the School of Nursing's Executive Mentorship Program, a one-year mentoring exper-ience that pairs DNP students with top executives from fields like business, finance, media, science, and technology. Each year, one to three students are chosen, and can each receive up to $5,000 to support the cost of expenses like travel, books, and conference attendance.
JoAnn Ioannou, DNP, MSN, MBA, RN, the Assistant Director of Nursing in the Department of Medical Nursing at Johns Hopkins Hospital, applied to the program to expand her business knowledge. "I was interested in seeing negotiation skills and conflict resolution in the business world to see if I could learn something from a different angle," she says.
In early 2009, Ioannou was one of the first three students selected for the program. She found an ideal mentor in Ron Shapiro, Co-Founder and Chairman of Shapiro Negotiations Institute and the author of The Power of Nice, a book about effective negotiation strategies. Since beginning her mentorship last spring, Ioannou has met with Shapiro several times, and attended three seminars.
Her favorite was the Butler Conference, an event on Shapiro's farm that brought together CEOs like Morris Offit, Director of AIG at the time, and Cal Ripken Jr. to discuss the global economy and its effects on their respective industries. Shapiro even gave Ioannou an important role—she was the group's "Medical Advisor," bringing her black bag in case anyone needed assistance.
"[Shapiro] is the most prepared individual I've ever met," Ioannou says. "He will know anything and everything that he needs to know before he walks in the room...that's one thing I'm trying to emulate." She has also learned to prepare for negotiations by thinking about the other person's needs first.
Ioannou has taught Shapiro some lessons too. "I've learned something about the depth of nursing education. [I've] also learned...by having JoAnn ask me questions about what I did. It made me examine how I did it a little more deeply," he says.
Fralic says these two programs offer nurses an unparalleled experience. "It is an opportunity that just doesn't come that often in our lives. We seldom have people who are really committed to our development so openly," she says. "Those are incredible gifts that last a lifetime."
To learn more about the Business of Nursing Program or the Executive Mentorship Program, visit www.nursing.jhu.edu/academics.
Five DNP students have participated in the Executive Mentorship Program, working with high-level professionals from a variety of disciplines.
- JoAnn Ioannou, MSN/MBA '05, RN ........ Ron Shapiro, Shapiro Negotiations Institute
- Beth Kilmoyer, MS, RN-BC ........ Debra Lappin, Senior Vice President of B&D Consulting, LLC
- Andrea Parsons Schram, MS, RN, FNP-BC ........ Nancy Brown, CEO of the American Heart Association
- Laurie Saletnik, MSN 07, RN ........ Dr. Gail Cassell, Vice President of Scientific Affairs at Eli Lilly and Company and a JHUSON Advisory Council member
- Erin Turner, MSN, RN ........ Gail McGovern, President and CEO of the American Red Cross
One of Louise Cavagnaro's "major, largely unsung achievements as an administrator was the desegregation of the Johns Hopkins Hospital, ward by ward," says Nancy McCall, an archivist at the Alan Mason Chesney Medical Archives of the Johns Hopkins Medical Institutions. "She also earned the trust, support, and affection of black employees, especially in the facilities and housekeeping divisions. There are many still working who remember her."
Louise "Cavi" Cavagnaro, an honorary member of the Johns Hopkins Nurses' Alumni Association, received her first nursing degree in 1943 and served as an Army nurse in World War II. In 1953, she started working at The Johns Hopkins Hospital, where she held numerous administrative positions before retiring in 1985 as assistant vice president. It was then, at the age of 65, that she began volunteering at the Alan Mason Chesney Medical Archives. This December, she retired after 25 years of volunteer service.
Cavagnaro, a former Army nurse, Hopkins administrator, and longtime friend of Johns Hopkins Nursing, was largely responsible for the hospitalÕs desegregation in the 1950s. Following are excerpts from her 1992 essay on the topic, which is online at www.nursing.jhu.edu/history.
Excerpts from "A History of Segregation and Desegregation at the Johns Hopkins Medical Institutions"
by Louise Cavagnaro, 1992
Johns Hopkins, a Quaker, came from a family who freed their slaves before the Civil War and the 14th Amendment of the constitution was enacted. In his letter to his Trustees he said that the Hospital "shall admit the indigent poor—without regard to sex, age, or color..."
The second patient admitted to the Hospital in 1889 was "colored" and became the first of many to be admitted to the Hospital. At the end of the first full year of operation, 13.6% of the patients were listed as "colored." By 1900 this percentage increased to 20.7%...
|Nurses serve patient meals in segregated gynecological ward at the Johns Hopkins Hospital WomenÕs Clinic, 1939.|
All Hospital patients were to be treated with respect. The earliest House Staff manual (about 1950-51) notes the policy of the Hospital to be that adult patients would be addressed as "Mr., Mrs., or Miss, or by their special title such as Dr. or Rev..." A first name was to be used only where the patient indicated that he/she be so addressed.
Despite this policy, [a member of the medical faculty] told me of an incident that occurred in 1947 when he arrived from Harvard Medical School to be an intern on the Osler Medical Service. When he referred to one of his black female patients on Osler 3 as "Mrs. —," he was told by his assistant resident that "I made the patient uncomfortable calling her "Mrs. —," and that it was better to call "colored" people by their first names..."
As I joined the Hospital Administrative staff in 1953, I was an active participant in the program to eliminate "separate facilities" for "colored" and "white." Actually the separate facilities were for Americans of African descent. Asians were never segregated...
Desegregation of inpatient facilities began in the 1950s. Marburg, which was private medicine and surgery, was the first area to be involved. There were no general announcements or proclamations... In 1959 full integration of the ward services in Surgery was approved by Dr. Alfred Blalock... The last inpatient service to be desegregated was in the Psychiatry Department... The change occurred sometime between 1968 and 1973.
- Segregated facilities included dining facilities, locker rooms, [drinking fountains], and bathrooms.
- Ms. Edith Rieder, a nurse anesthetist who arrived in 1946, remembers the "colored" and "white" waiting rooms outside of the General Operating rooms on the bridge connecting the Carnegie Building with the Halsted Building.
- Some clinics had "colored" and "white" days, but the Accident Room was never segregated nor was the Emergency Room which took its place.
- The entrances to the Hospital were never segregated nor were the outpatient facilities.
- The December 9, 1890, Trustee Minutes "noted the need of a separate ward for colored people..."
- The "colored ward" opened in March 1894 with men on the first floor and females on the second floor.
- [In 1916], two cement refrigerated rooms [morgues] were constructed, in the Pathology building, one for white patients and one for "colored patients" ... these separate facilities were retained as such until 1960.
- [A member of the medical faculty] remembers that when he arrived in 1947 the shelves were labeled "white blood" and "colored blood" and that all of the blood bottles were labeled as either "colored" or "white."
"This is an opportunity to understand, to build on each other's strengths, to create an image, to create synergy around purpose," said Michael R. Bleich, PhD, RN, FAAN, addressing an audience of nurses, nursing students, and faculty. Bleich, Dean of the Oregon Health & Science University School of Nursing, encouraged the men in the group to "accelerate your own sense of purpose, your own sense of identity."
|Michael Bleich (left) was a guest speaker for the Men in Nursing student organization, which Dan Sheridan (right) advises.|
"I'd never before taken serious time to think about the journey that I've been through as a man in nursing," says Bleich, who turned 58 in March. His January presentation at the Johns Hopkins University School of Nursing drew on nearly 40 years of experience in the profession—starting as an orderly in 1970, followed by an LPN program, a diploma program, a baccalaureate education, and eventually graduate school.
"It was very difficult to convince my own parents that this was my career," recalls Bleich. "But I liked the work. I liked being able to care for people. That was the tension within me."
"I'd been struggling with my own inner conflict of how I'm perceived in social situations," says Cameron Caswell, a student in the accelerated class of 2010 who attended the presentation. It was heartening, he says, to hear another man's story of similar emotional struggles. "It was nice to have the conflict normalized. [Bleich's message] was similar to that of a nurse telling a pre-op patient, 'It's normal and okay to feel scared before your surgery; many people do.'"
Bleich also articulated why it's important to have men in the nursing profession, outlining what they bring to the table and why their work is important. Caswell could relate: "In a lot of ways, I'm a stereotypical male. I fix the engine in my truck. I backpack, surf. That's valuable in being able to relate to male patients." Understanding men's needs and how to interact with them is one major advantage to having more men in the profession, according to Bleich.
He encouraged his audience to act with fervent purpose and integrity, be clear in their own mind about the value of their work as nurses, and to step up as leaders to improve systems of care.
"Hopkins is a great model in many, many ways," Bleich told his audience. "You have the benefit of being a Hopkins nurse, and Hopkins nurses are leaders. Your relationship as males graduating from this school only gives you an added platform and added benefit."
Watch Bleich's presentation online at www.nursing.jhu.edu/bleich.
How can instructors give student nurses the hands-on clinical experience they need without jeopardizing patients? It's a perennial challenge in nursing education, and Hopkins nursing faculty members have a remedy: the Faculty Academy of Simulation Teaching (M-FAST).
With a three-year grant from the Maryland Higher Education Commission, Linda Rose, PhD, RN, associate professor, and Pamela R. Jeffries, associate dean of academic affairs, are training a critical mass of Maryland faculty members in simulation techniques. They, in turn, will train others from their respective schools.
|Maryland nursing faculty came to Hopkins for an education on teaching with simulation manikins.|
"These simulation education leaders will go on to guide the training of other faculty in their schools in a 'train the trainer' approach," said Rose.
At a weeklong workshop in January, 15 faculty members representing six nursing schools in Maryland gathered at Hopkins to develop written simulation plans and evaluation criteria. By the third year of the grant, M-FAST expects to expand to nine nursing schools in Maryland and train a total of 62 faculty members.
"In the hospital, student nurses can't be autonomous. Simulation gives them an opportunity to hone their interpersonal, clinical and problem-solving skills in a non-threatening, safe environment," said Jeffries, a national expert in simulation in nursing education and lead author of a textbook on that topic. Jeffries directed the week's workshop and debriefing session.
With this program, everyone wins. Students can practice what they've learned so their transition to a direct patient care setting after graduation is smooth. M-FAST helps participating nursing schools remain competitive by boosting their enrollments, graduation rates, and the number of nursing students who pass their licensing exams.
Hopkins instructor Kathryn Kushto-Reese, MS, RN has also used simulation in her child health curriculum for the past three years. Her goal as a student in the workshop: to develop best practices and network with like-minded faculty at other schools. M-FAST, she says, offered that opportunity.
Cassandra Hall, RN, a workshop participant and instructional associate in the skills simulation lab at Montgomery College's nursing school, agreed. Since 2008 Hall has used manikins in class, but this year plans to tap volunteers from the college's drama program to help her as well. As a condition of participation, she will also train 31 faculty members in what she learned. Of her experience using simulations in the classroom, Hall said, "The students love it."
She directs the Office of Teaching Excellence at the Johns Hopkins University School of Nursing. She won a Nursing Spectrum Nursing Excellence Award last summer. And, according to Dean Martha N. Hill, PhD, RN, FAAN, she "has touched the lives of hundreds of students" over the course of her career.
Anne Belcher, PhD, RN, AOCN, CNE, ANEF, FAAN was accorded another honor in the fallÑwinner of the National League for Nursing (NLN) Excellence in Teaching Award. According to NLN CEO Beverly Malone, the Awards Committee unanimously selected Belcher as winner, although the organization received an unprecedented number of nominations this year.
Belcher is a 40-year veteran of nursing education with expertise in oncology and the psychological effects of cancer, patient education, spirituality, humor, and professional development.
Thanks to a generous donation by Rebecca Hoffberger, anyone with a School of Nursing ID badge was granted free access to the American Visionary Art Museum in Baltimore this winter. Hoffberger, the museum's founder and director, made the donation to celebrate the life of Worth Daniels, MD, a great friend of the School of Nursing and a strong supporter of the arts. Daniels died July 9, 2009.
More than 15 million nurses bring health to their communities—locally and worldwide—every day. Join them in celebrating the International Year of the Nurse in 2010, the centennial year of the death of Florence Nightingale (1820-1910).
As part of the festivities, a commemorative service will be held at the National Cathedral in Washington, DC on April 25 at 4:00 p.m. Leslie Mancuso, PhD, RN, FAAN, president and CEO of the Hopkins-affiliated Jhpiego, will be the keynote speaker.
To learn more about the International Year of the Nurse, visit www.2010iynurse.netm or nursing.jhu.edu/iyn.
Nursing experiences in rural South Dakota and urban Baltimore couldn't be more different, but through student exchange visits, groups from the two areas can see how the other side lives.
|"Snowmageddon 2010" didn't stop these visiting students from getting an education in urban community nursing.|
"I wanted to give the South Dakota students an urban experience with a focus on the African-American and Hispanic populations," said Joan Kub, PhD, APHN, BC, an associate professor in the depart-ment of community public health and a native of Sioux Falls, South Dakota. "These are population groups the South Dakota students might not otherwise be exposed to."
In February, Kub hosted a group of eight nursing undergraduate students from South Dakota State University (SDSU). The visit was part of a student exchange—last May, Kub and seven Hopkins nursing students had traveled to South Dakota to experience public health nursing in a rural setting, particularly among the Native American population.
February's weeklong trip to Baltimore was delayed, and the schedule shaken up, after a massive snowstorm crippled the Mid-Atlantic region. After flight delays and cancellations, the group finally arrivedÑin time for a second storm.
But Kub made it work. When the students were stuck in her house, she arranged conference calls with some of the local speakers she had planned to visit, giving the students an overview of some of Baltimore's communities.
The group was able to explore some of the city; visit the Baltimore City needle exchange program; provide health teaching at DaySpring Programs, which provides substance abuse services to Baltimore families; visit the International Rescue Committee, which serves Baltimore's immigrant community; and spend time with elderly residents of Apostolic Towers.
Before the trip, SDSU nursing instructor Catherine Calhoon, who helped coordinate the trip and traveled to Baltimore with the students, said that her students had been preparing by researching topics such as African-American health and health disparities. "Being exposed to those cultures will really help them," she said. "I think every student should have some sort of away experience in college. There's so much more learned in that experience."
Despite the weather frustrations, "We did the best that we could," said Kub, "and I really think they still had a good experience."
"It was amazing," Calhoon said, adding that it was "definitely eye-opening."
The results are in! More than 300 nurses responded to last summer's survey of Johns Hopkins Nursing readers. The answers revealed what Hopkins nurses most want to read about:
10. Doctor of Nursing Practice Program. A doctoral degree for nurses interested in translating research for patient care. (See p. 38-39)
9. Community Public Health Nursing. Hopkins nurses work in their local communities. (See p. 13, 30)
8. Research. Well, folks, this spring 2010 issue is just for you! (See p. 16-17, 24-39, 60)
7. Global and International Nursing. Look for more in the summer 2010 magazine. (See p. 18-23)
6. Church Home & Hospital. Nursing alumni from CHH joined the Johns Hopkins Nurses' Alumni Association in 2004. (See p. 59)
5. Current Events. What's going on in the wider world of nursing. (See p. 10, 12, 15)
4. Bedside Nursing. Direct patient care is still at the heart of nursing practice. (See p. 42-51)
3. Alumni and Hospital News. What are Hopkins nurses doing in the workplace? (See p. 6, 42-51, 56-58)
2. Class News. Due to financial constraints, the Johns Hopkins Nurses' Alumni Association now posts Class News online at www.nursing.jhu.edu/alumni/classnews.
1. Everything! Most respondents said Johns Hopkins Nursing already gives them what they want. We'll do our best to keep it up.
What is Sigma Theta Tau?
Sigma Theta Tau International (STTI), the honor society of nursing, was founded in 1922 to support the learning, knowledge, and professional development of nurses committed to making a difference in health worldwide. The name "Sigma Theta Tau" comes from the Greek words Storgé, Tharsos, and Timé, meaning "love," "honor," and "courage"—all of which are key to excellence in nursing.
What does the Nu Beta chapter do?
Recently, Nu Beta, the chapter of STTI affiliated with the Johns Hopkins University School of Nursing, hosted a Founders' Day celebration and CEU program for 70 participants with Dr. Sue Hassmiller, Robert Wood Johnson Foundation (RWJF) Senior Adviser for Nursing and Director of the RWJF Initiative on the Future of Nursing at the Institute of Medicine.
This spring, Anne Muller, RN, MSN, ACNS-BC, from University of Pennsylvania spoke about how STTI can help nurses grow as leaders throughout their careers. Nu Beta also sponsored a service event to donate books to children at local community outreach sites.
On Sunday, April 25, members of Nu Beta will attend the International Year of the Nurse celebration at the National Cathedral in Washington, DC.
Nu Beta's annual induction will be held May 26 with keynote speaker Dr. Alexis Bakos, an alumna from the Hopkins nursing PhD program and Chief of the Diversity Training Branch within the Center to Reduce Cancer Health Disparities at the National Cancer Institute (NCI).
How do I join Nu Beta?
Membership in STTI is by invitation made to baccalaureate and graduate nursing students who demonstrate excellence in scholarship and to nurse and community leaders exhibiting exceptional achievements in nursing. Members of other chapters of Sigma Theta Tau may also join Nu Beta through the headquarters website. Members who are currently inactive can reactivate their membership by contacting STTI at (888) 634-7575 or www.nursingsociety.org.
For more information about the Nu Beta chapter, visit www.nursing.jhu.edu/aboutus/nubeta.