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Society of Scholars, 1969 to Present

The Society of Scholars was created on the recommendation of then president Milton S. Eisenhower and approved by the university board of trustees on May 1, 1967. The society -- the first of its kind in the nation -- inducts former postdoctoral fellows, postdoctoral degree recipients, house staff and junior or visiting faculty who have served at least a year at Johns Hopkins and thereafter gained marked distinction elsewhere in their fields of physical, biological, medical, social or engineering sciences or in the humanities and for whom at least five years have elapsed since their last Johns Hopkins affiliation. The Committee of the Johns Hopkins Society of Scholars, whose members are equally distributed among the academic divisions, elects a limited number of scholars from the candidates nominated by the academic divisions with postdoctoral programs. The scholars are invested at the time of Commencement or a similar occasion. At that time, they are presented with a certificate and a medallion on a black and gold ribbon to be worn with their academic robe. There are currently 611 members in the Johns Hopkins Society of Scholars. The following listing of the Society of Scholars members is accompanied by a short description of their accomplishments at the time of their election to the society.

 

2014

James C. Anthony
East Lansing, Michigan

Dr. Anthony is chairman of the Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics at Michigan State University College of Human Medicine and director of the department’s NIH/NIDA drug dependence epidemiology training programs. Before his move to Michigan State in 2003, Dr. Anthony was for many years a faculty member at the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, where he arrived as a postdoctoral fellow in the Department of Mental Hygiene in 1977. He joined a pioneering group of epidemiologists and social scientists who were moving beyond clinical descriptions of neuroscience disorders by introducing quantitative analyses. Dr. Anthony became a leading faculty member who expanded quantitative analyses of these disorders and broke down many of the silo patterns that traditionally separated epidemiology, biostatistics, and demography. He held academic appointments in the Bloomberg School’s departments of Epidemiology and Mental Health and the School of Medicine’s Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences. He has received numerous honors for both his work and his mentoring of young research scientists.

Andreas D. Baxevanis
Bethesda, Maryland

Dr. Baxevanis holds several positions in the Division of Intramural Research at NIH’s National Human Genome Research Institute. He is the assistant director for Computational Biology in the division, and in its Genome Technology Branch, he is director of the Bioinformatics and Scientific Programming Core and head of the Computational Genomics Unit, where his bioinformatics approaches to central problems of molecular-developmental biology and evolutionary biology are revolutionizing both fields. He has made seminal discoveries of physicochemical aspects of the chromosomal proteins (histones), as well as pioneering contributions to the emergence of, and medical applications in, the field of bioinformatics. At Johns Hopkins, he completed a PhD in the Department of Biology in the School of Arts and Sciences, and as a postdoctoral fellow in that department, he performed the first bioinformatics analysis of the newly discovered histone fold motif of protein folding and chromosomal assembly. As deputy director of the NIH intramural Genome Project, he helped extend the applications of bioinformatics methodologies in the emerging area of individualized medicine.

Belinda Edmondson
Montclair, New Jersey

Dr. Edmondson is a renowned professor of African-Caribbean and African-diasporic literatures and cultures. For the past 20 years, she has taught in the departments of English and of African American and African Studies at Rutgers University–Newark. She is the author of two books—Making Men: Gender, Literary Authority, and Women’s Writing in Caribbean Narrative (Duke, 1999) and Caribbean Middlebrow: Leisure Culture and the Middle Class (Cornell, 2009). Dr. Edmondson has recently been awarded a residential fellowship at the Schomburg Center for Research in Black Culture in New York City, and is a recipient of awards and fellowships from the National Humanities Center, the Ford Foundation, the Andrew W. Mellon Foundation, and the Woodrow Wilson National Fellowship Foundation. She is on the editorial boards of the journals Signs and Anthurium. Dr. Edmondson received her PhD in English from Northwestern University in 1993; in 1993–94, and again in the spring of 1996, she was a Mellon postdoctoral fellow in the Department of English at Johns Hopkins.

Wafik S. El-Deiry
Hershey, Pennsylvania

Dr. El-Deiry is the Rose Dunlap Professor of Medicine and Chief of Hematology/Oncology and the Associate Director for Translational Research at the Cancer Institute, Penn State University. Among his research interests are cancer cell death, resistance to anti-cancer drugs, and cancer drug discovery and development. He is committed to translational cancer research that is focused on bringing new biomarkers and novel therapies into the clinic. In addition to teaching and clinical work, he serves on review panels and editorial boards, including, since 2001, as founding editor-in-chief of Cancer Biology and Therapy. His findings have been published in Cancer Cell, Cancer Research, and Science Translational Medicine, among others. Dr. El-Deiry trained at Johns Hopkins Hospital, completing his internship and residency in internal medicine in 1994, followed by a fellowship in medical oncology.

Geza Feketekuty 
Bumpass, Virginia

Mr. Feketekuty has had an illustrious policy and academic career focused on trade policy and international trade negotiations. For 21 years, he served with the Office of the U.S. Trade Representative in various senior trade policy leadership positions. He played a key role in developing U.S. policy positions on a range of new trade issues, including trade in services, aspects of competition policies, regulatory reform, and environmental/labor standards. From 1979 to 1985, he was responsible for planning and developing domestic and international agreement on the agenda for the Uruguay Round of Multilateral Trade Negotiations. From 1980 to 1983, he was also an adjunct professor in the SAIS International Economics program. In 1995, Mr. Feketekuty developed an innovative master’s degree program in trade and commercial diplomacy at the Monterey Institute of International Studies. He was the director of the Center for Trade and Commercial Diplomacy at Monterey from 1995 to 1998 and a distinguished professor of commercial diplomacy from 1998 to 2008.

Arthur Michael Feldman
Philadelphia, Pennsylvania

Dr. Feldman is executive dean of the Temple University School of Medicine and chief academic officer of the Temple University Health System, as well as a professor of medicine and physiology. After completing his PhD at the University of Maryland, he did a postdoctoral fellowship in physiology at the Johns Hopkins School of Medicine. He then earned his medical degree from Louisiana State University School of Medicine and returned to Johns Hopkins for his internship, residency, and a fellowship in cardiology. In 1985, Dr. Feldman was appointed an assistant professor of medicine at Johns Hopkins and named director of both the Heart Failure Research Program and the Belfer Laboratory for Molecular Biology of Heart Failure. Nine years later, he departed for the University of Pittsburgh Medical Center and Health System. In 2002 he became chairman of the Department of Medicine at Jefferson University School of Medicine. He was founding editor of the journal Clinical and Translational Science and is a past president of the Heart Failure Society of America and of the Association of Professors of Cardiology. He is an elected member of the American Society for Clinical Investigation, the Association of American Physicians, and the Interurban Clinical Club.

Linda P. Fried
New York, New York

Dr. Fried became dean of the Mailman School of Public Health at Columbia University, as well as the DeLamar Professor of Public Health and a professor of epidemiology, in 2008. She is also a professor of medicine in the College of Physicians and Surgeons at Columbia and senior vice president of Columbia University Medical Center. An internationally renowned scientist, she co-designed the Experience Corps, a community-based program that puts senior volunteers to work as tutors and mentors in public schools, benefiting both the students and the volunteers. At Johns Hopkins, Dr. Fried was the Mason F. Lord Professor of Geriatric Medicine, with joint appointments in the Bloomberg School of Public Health and the School of Nursing. She was also the division director of Geriatric Medicine and Gerontology, as well as director of the Johns Hopkins Center on Aging and Health. Dr. Fried has received numerous awards, including the Irving Wright Award from the American Federation for Aging Research and the American Geriatrics Society Henderson Award for career contributions to research on aging. She has also received an NIH Merit Award and was elected to the Institute of Medicine.

Ethylin Wang Jabs
New York, New York

Dr. Jabs has been a pioneer in the study of birth defects. She has also contributed passionately to the education of medical geneticists in this country and abroad. Dr. Jabs is currently at the Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, where she is a vice chair and professor of genetics and genomic sciences, a professor of pediatrics, and a professor of developmental and regenerative biology. Almost uniquely the product of Hopkins training, Dr. Jabs enrolled in a combined BA/MD program, receiving her BA in 1974—a member of the first class with women undergraduates—and her MD in 1977. After an internship at Cornell, she returned to Hopkins for her pediatric residency and subspecialty training in medical genetics. In 1984, she joined the faculty, becoming a professor of pediatrics in 1996, with joint appointments in Medicine and Surgery. When she left Hopkins in 2007, she was the Dr. Frank V. Sutland Professor of Pediatric Genetics and director of the Center for Craniofacial Development and Disorders.

Timothy R. B. Johnson
Ann Arbor, Michigan

Dr. Johnson is the Bates Professor of the Diseases of Women and Children and chair of the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology at the University of Michigan Medical School. At the start of his career, he was a fellow in maternal fetal medicine at the Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine. After military service, he returned to Johns Hopkins and established one of the first fetal assessment centers in the United States. During his 10 years at Johns Hopkins, he became director of the gynecology/obstetrics residency training program and of the Division of Maternal Fetal Medicine. He was promoted in 1988 to associate professor with a joint appointment in the School of Public Health, where he focused on global women’s health. In 1993, Dr. Johnson was recruited to the University of Michigan to chair its Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology. Most notably, he was a major architect of the Carnegie initiative to fund training in obstetrics and gynecology in Ghana. In recognition of his commitment, in 2013 the Timothy R. B. Johnson Professorship in Global Women’s Health was endowed at the University of Michigan.

Shiriki Kumanyika
Philadelphia, Pennsylvania

Dr. Kumanyika is a professor of epidemiology at the University of Pennsylvania, where she is associate dean for health promotion and disease prevention and founding director of the Master of Public Health Program. President-elect of the American Public Health Association, she is recognized as one of the world’s leading scholars and practitioners addressing obesity as a public health crisis, particularly in underserved populations. She is the founder of the African American Collaborative Obesity Research Network, a national organization that seeks to improve the quantity, quality, and effective translation of research on weight issues in African American communities. She was born and raised in Baltimore at a time when children, herself included, attended racially segregated schools. When she left Maryland to attend Syracuse University, she was attracted to sociology and psychology, as they related to racial disparities in health, especially in nutrition. After a job as a social worker, she returned to school, completing her doctoral degree in human nutrition at Cornell. She then came to Johns Hopkins as a Master of Public Health student, earning her degree in 1984 and joining the faculty of the Department of Epidemiology.

William C. Mobley
La Jolla, California

Dr. Mobley holds the Florence Riford Chair for Alzheimer’s Disease Research and is a Distinguished Professor and chair of the Department of Neurosciences at University of California, San Diego. He also serves as executive director of UCSD’s Down Syndrome Center for Research and Treatment. Dr. Mobley earned his doctorate from Stanford University in neuroscience and behavioral science in 1974, and his MD from that institution in 1976. He completed a residency and fellowship in neurology and pediatric neurology at the Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine in 1982. His research focuses on the neurobiology of neurotrophic factor actions and signaling, and on the hypothesis that dysfunction of such signaling mechanisms contributes to neuronal dysfunction in developmental and age-related disorders of the nervous system. His emphasis on the neurobiology of Down syndrome has brought new insights into the disease, including possible treatments. He is a member of the Institute of Medicine, National Academy of Sciences. He collaborated with the Dalai Lama to create the Center for Compassion and Altruism Research and Education at Stanford University. He also serves as the expert adviser to the Congressional Down Syndrome Caucus, for which he received the Christian Pueschel Memorial Research Award in 2007.

Kenneth R. Sembach
Baltimore, Maryland

Dr. Sembach is head of the Hubble Mission Office at the Space Telescope Science Institute. In this position, he is deeply involved in the scientific, operational, and managerial aspects of the Hubble Space Telescope. He served as the instrument scientist and team leader for Hubble instruments, and he led two NASA mission concept studies and supported two others. In 2006, he became the Hubble Project scientist at STScI. Given his strong interest in the design and operation of observatories in space, Dr. Sembach played a critical role during the extended planning and execution of the Hubble servicing mission in May 2009, for which he received a NASA Exceptional Public Service Medal in 2010. His scientific interests focus on the physical properties of the intergalactic medium, the origin and evolution of structure in the universe, and the interactions of galaxies with their surroundings. He is known for his studies of diffuse gas clouds found between galaxies.

Julie Ann Sosa
Durham, North Carolina

Dr. Sosa is a professor of surgery and oncology at Duke University, where she serves as chief of Endocrine Surgery and director of Health Services Research in the Department of Surgery; she is also the leader of the Endocrine Neoplasia Diseases Group at the Duke Cancer Institute and the Duke Clinical Research Institute. She is vice president of the American Association of Endocrine Surgeons and serves on practice guidelines committees for the American Thyroid Association and the National Comprehensive Cancer Network. She has published more than 130 peer-reviewed publications. Dr. Sosa is associate editor of the Journal of Surgical Research and is on the editorial boards of the Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism and the Journal of Thyroid Research. She received her undergraduate degree from the Woodrow Wilson School at Princeton University and her MD from the Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, where she also completed the Halsted residency program and a fellowship, and was a Robert Wood Johnson Clinical Scholar. She received a master’s degree from the University of Oxford.

Hugh Ringland Taylor
Carlton, Australia

Dr. Taylor is the Ringland Anderson Professor of Ophthalmology and chairman of the Department of Ophthalmology at the University of Melbourne. He also holds the Harold Mitchell Chair of Indigenous Eye Health in the Melbourne School of Population and Global Health at the university. He is an accomplished academician, department chair, international leader, and scholar. At Johns Hopkins, he completed a postdoctoral fellowship at the Wilmer Eye Institute and then joined the faculty of ophthalmology in School of Medicine and the departments of International Health and Epidemiology in the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. Dr. Taylor helped design and carry out trials that demonstrated the efficacy of behavioral modifications and antibiotic prophylaxis, which now compose the core of the global strategy for the eradication of trachoma, a disease that has blinded 8 million people worldwide. He played a major role in demonstrating that annual dosing with Mectizan is effective in preventing the disease known as river blindness (onchocerciasis), resulting in dramatic reduction or elimination in many countries.

Ora Weisz
Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania

Dr. Weisz is an international leader in the field of epithelial biology at the University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, where she has been on the faculty since 1995. She is a professor of medicine, cell biology, and physiology, and the associate director of the Pittsburgh Center for Kidney Research. Dr. Weisz’s research program focuses on the pathways of protein and lipid sorting in polarized epithelial cells. Her work has led to new understanding of the complex signals that direct membrane components to the apical surface, a process critical to the barrier function of epithelia. The work is innovative in the approaches used, including cutting-edge microscopic analyses. Dr. Weisz has also made a significant contribution to faculty mentoring and currently serves as assistant dean for faculty development at the University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine. She received her PhD in biochemistry, cellular and molecular biology from the Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine in 1990 and was a postdoctoral fellow at Johns Hopkins in the Department of Cell Biology and Anatomy.

Lijun Wu
Lexington, Massachusetts

Dr. Wu is the vice president of biology and preclinical research and development at Concert Pharmaceuticals. Prior to Concert, she held senior executive positions at Resolvyx Pharmaceuticals, Novartis Institutes for BioMedical Research, and Millennium Pharmaceuticals. She received her PhD from Northwestern University and completed a postdoctoral fellowship at the Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine. Dr. Wu is a leader and pioneer in research and development in the bio-pharmaceutical industry in inflammation, cardiovascular and metabolic disease, and oncology. Dr. Wu is an author of more than 60 peer-reviewed publications in such prestigious journals as Nature and Cell, and an inventor who holds numerous patents. She received an Outstanding Contributor Award from Millennium, and Small Business Innovation Research grants from NIH. She was the recipient of Massachusetts High Tech’s “Women to Watch” award as recognition of a leader, innovator, and mentor in science and technology.

2013

David B. Allison
Birmingham, Alabama

Dr. Allison, a biostatistician, psychologist and world-renowned obesity researcher, is the Quetelet Endowed
Professor of Public Health and associate dean for science at the University of Alabama at Birmingham. At UAB, he is
also director of the Office of Energetics and of the Nutrition Obesity Research Center, which is funded by the National
Institutes of Health. His research focuses broadly on the causes, consequences, treatment and prevention of obesity. Taking
an interdisciplinary approach, he works from basic science with animal models all the way through epidemiology, policy and
mathematical modeling. Dr. Allison has authored more than 450 scientific publications and edited five books. Among the
many honors he has received are the 2002 Lilly Scientific Achievement Award from the Obesity Society; the 2002 Andre
Mayer Award from the International Association for the Study of Obesity; the 2006 Presidential Award for Excellence
in Science, Mathematics and Engineering Mentoring from the National Science Foundation; the 2009 TOPS Research
Achievement Award from the Obesity Society; and the 2009 Centrum Award from the American Society for Nutrition.
He has been elected a fellow of numerous scientific societies, including the American Association for the Advancement
of Science, and in 2012 was elected to the Institute of Medicine. He holds multiple NIH and NSF grants and is on the
editorial boards of statistics, epidemiology and obesity journals. Dr. Allison received his PhD from Hofstra University in
2009 and was a postdoctoral fellow at the Johns Hopkins School of Medicine from 1990 to 1991.

Peter B. Bach
New York, New York

Dr. Bach is one of the world’s leading health services researchers and health policy analysts in the realm of cancer
treatment delivery. He is a full member at Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center in New York, where he directs the
Center for Health Policy and Outcomes and is a senior scholar at the International Agency for Research on Cancer and a
member of the World Economic Forum. He has conducted transformational work in the field of health care disparities,
documenting the undertreatment of minorities with lung cancer. He first introduced and empirically supported the now
widely accepted view that disparities in outcomes may be owing to the lower quality of the institutions in which minority
patients receive care, and the relative lack of expertise and resources of the physicians who treat them. Dr. Bach published
the first validated risk prediction model for lung cancer, which laid the groundwork for identifying individuals who should
be enrolled in trials of lung cancer screening, a model still in use in two ongoing trials in Europe. Also, his health policy
analyses have questioned and shifted thinking in important areas of Medicare’s approaches to cancer payment. At Johns
Hopkins, Dr. Bach was a member of the Osler Medicine house staff from 1992 to 1995 and a fellow in pulmonary and
critical care medicine from 1997 to 1998.

Abhay and Rani Bang
Maharashtra, India

Through their outstanding leadership, applied research, technical support and advocacy, Drs. Abhay and Rani
Bang have significantly changed the landscape of global health. Together, the couple founded the Society for Education,
Action and Research in Community Health, known as SEARCH, which works to improve the health of the population
in Gadchiroli, a remote district of Maharashtra state in India. Abhay Bang is director of SEARCH, and Rani Bang is
co-director. They both studied medicine in India and received Master of Public Health degrees from the Johns Hopkins
Bloomberg School of Public Health. Parallel to his efforts to develop community health services, Abhay Bang and his
colleagues implemented and published world-class research on practical and effective approaches to reduce under-5 mortality
in resource-constrained settings. Two of the most notable of these publications demonstrated the mortality impact of the
management of childhood pneumonia and the provision of home-based neonatal care, both by community health workers.
Pneumonia and neonatal conditions are the two leading causes of under-5 mortality globally. Rani Bang and her colleagues
carried out the world’s first study documenting the large burden of gynecological diseases among poor rural women. This
study was a major force in the expansion of women’s reproductive health programs in developing countries. Her work has
also focused on maternal health, adolescent sexual health, sexually transmitted diseases and HIV/AIDS control. The Bangs
have also done research and taken action in tobacco- and alcohol-related problems. Using the results of their research
to advocate for more effective programs for women and children, they have led a renaissance in improving the health of
impoverished people through community-based primary health care.

Terence R. Flotte
Worcester, Massachusetts

Dr. Flotte is the Celia and Isaac Haidak Professor in Medical Education, dean of the School of Medicine, and
executive deputy chancellor and provost at the University of Massachusetts Medical School. In this position, he oversees all
academic activities, including education and research, of the basic and clinical science departments of the UMMS School
of Medicine and Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences. He is a respected physician, educator and internationally known
pioneer in human gene therapy. He is leading rAAV vector research, investigating the development of therapeutic genes
and microRNA for genetic diseases such as cystic fibrosis, genetic emphysema and inborn errors of metabolism. He is the
author of more than 260 scholarly papers, and his published work has been cited close to 7,500 times. His research has
been funded by the National Institutes of Health and the Cystic Fibrosis Foundation, among others. The numerous honors
and awards he has received throughout his career include the 2012 Investigator Award from the Massachusetts Society
for Medical Research, the 2005 E. Mead Johnson Award for Outstanding Scientific Contributions from the Society for
Pediatric Research, and the University of Florida Faculty Research Prize in Clinical Science. He is an elected member of the
Association of American Physicians, the American Pediatric Society, the Society for Clinical Investigation and the Society
for Pediatric Research. Dr. Flotte completed his residency, pediatric pulmonary fellowship and postdoctoral training in
molecular virology at Johns Hopkins/NIH, and was an assistant professor at Johns Hopkins from 1993 to 1996. He then
moved to the University of Florida, where he was a professor in Pediatrics and in Molecular Genetics and Microbiology,
director of the Powell Gene Therapy Center, founding director of the UF Genetics Institute and chair of the Department of
Pediatrics. He joined the University of Massachusetts Medical School in 2007.

Kevin B. Johnson
Nashville, Tennessee

Dr. Johnson is the Cornelius Vanderbilt Professor and Chair of the Department of Biomedical Informatics at
Vanderbilt University School of Medicine and a professor in the Department of Pediatrics at Vanderbilt University Medical
Center. His career bridges the worlds of pediatrics and biomedical informatics, especially in the development and evaluation
of electronic health records, documentation, data exchange and e-prescribing. He is internationally renowned for his
scholarship and research in informatics, with more than 60 publications in peer-reviewed literature since leaving Johns
Hopkins in 2002. Dr. Johnson completed his MD degree at Johns Hopkins and was a postdoctoral fellow in Pediatrics from
1987 to 1990. He served on the house staff from 1988 to 1990, and then joined the School of Medicine faculty in general
pediatrics, rising to associate professor in 2000. While at Hopkins, Dr. Johnson worked on one of the first major studies
examining the impact of computer-based documentation on physician-patient interaction; he was also a leader and innovator
with the electronic health record project, then known as EPR. He is an associate editor of JAMIA, the American Medical
Informatics Association’s premier journal for biomedical and health informatics. Dr. Johnson co-edited the first textbook on
pediatric informatics and is a frequent speaker at national and international meetings. He has served on numerous expert
panels, Institute of Medicine committees, study sections and national boards of directors for professional societies and
industry groups. In addition to his membership in the American College of Medical Informatics, the American Academy of
Pediatrics and the American Pediatric Society, Dr. Johnson was recently elected to the Institute of Medicine.

Peter Kolchin
Newark, Delaware

An internationally recognized leader in the field of comparative historical studies of slavery, Dr. Kolchin is the
Henry Clay Reed Professor of History at the University of Delaware. As a postdoctoral fellow of the Institute of Southern
History in the Department of History at Johns Hopkins from 1971 to 1972, he put the finishing touches on his book
First Freedom: The Responses of Alabama’s Blacks to Emancipation and Reconstruction, which examines the post–Civil War
transition to freedom from African-American perspectives. He also began research on Unfree Labor: American Slavery and
Russian Serfdom, a work that made him a major figure in the scholarly movement to place U.S. history in comparative
and transnational contexts. In 1988, Unfree Labor received the Bancroft Prize from Columbia University, as well as awards
from both the Organization of American Historians and the Southern Historical Association. Dr. Kolchin is the author of
two other major books, American Slavery: 1619–1877, probably the best single-volume survey of the subject, and A Sphinx
on the American Land: The Nineteenth-Century South in Comparative Perspective, and of many important articles. In 1984,
one of his articles was named by the Organization of American Historians as the best article to have been published in the
Journal of American History in 1983. He is president-elect of the Southern Historical Association, a Distinguished Lecturer
of the Organization of American Historians and an elected fellow of the Society of American Historians. He has received the
Francis Alison Award, the University of Delaware’s highest faculty honor for research, teaching and service.

Jane Koziol-McLain
Auckland, New Zealand

Dr. Koziol-McLain is director of the Interdisciplinary Trauma Research Centre and a professor of nursing
at Auckland University of Technology. She is a leading researcher on the topic of violence against women and, more
importantly, has established ways in which the world’s health care systems can change to better address the issue. Her work
has been referenced in two Institute of Medicine reports and was the basis of a 2011 IOM Global Violence Forum plenary
address. Her research on risk factors for intimate partner femicide, a New Zealand Health Research Council–funded clinical
trial on health care screening and intervention for domestic violence, led to noted publications, as well as changes in health
programs and practices. She is currently funded to conduct a trial of an Internet-based intervention to improve mental
health outcomes for abused women, which has parallel studies in Australia, the United States and Canada. Dr. Koziol-
McLain is known for her bicultural research, engaging with indigenous Māori and other cultures. She is an implementing
partner for the United Nations Population Fund Pacific Sub-Regional Office, leading a team that works alongside Pacific
Island country Ministries of Health and Medical Services, using country family safety study data to inform health system
programming and ensure the delivery of safe, effective and sensitive health services for women experiencing domestic
violence. Her interest in this area was evident during her postdoctoral fellowship, from 1999 to 2001, at the Johns Hopkins
University School of Nursing, where she focused her clinical, teaching and research activities on partner violence against
women.

Natasha Kyprianou
Lexington, Kentucky

Dr. Kyprianou holds the James F. Hardymon Chair in Urology Research at the University of Kentucky Medical
Center, where she is also a professor of surgery/urology, molecular biochemistry, and pathology and laboratory medicine, as
well as a professor of toxicology at the University of Kentucky College of Medicine. A pre-eminent investigator in prostate
cancer research, she has published more than 150 articles and authored one book on the mechanisms of apoptosis (cell
death) in prostate cancer. Dr. Kyprianou is internationally recognized for her pioneering contributions to the identification
of apoptosis signaling pathways in endocrine-dependent tumors and their therapeutic targeting in advanced prostate cancer.
She has a long and significant service as a member of several National Institutes of Health study sections at the National
Cancer Institute and the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases, the American Cancer Society
and the American Association for Cancer Research/Stand Up To Cancer Advisory Committee, as well as of numerous
international cancer research funding organizations. She has served as president of the Society of Basic Urological Research,
the leading academic organization in investigative urology, and as chair of the Department of Defense Prostate Cancer
Research Program Integration Panel. The American Urological Association/Society for Basic Urologic Research/Society
of Women in Urology honored Dr. Kyprianou in 2006 with the inaugural award for the leading female investigator who
has made outstanding contributions to urologic research. A distinguished academic leader and an honored mentor of
medical students, graduate students and physician scientists, she has received additional awards and honors, including
the Distinguished Mentor Award from the American Urological Association Foundation in 2008, the Prostate Net “In
the Know” Award in 2009 for the impact of her translational research in prostate cancer and the Dominique Chopin
Distinguished Award in Urology from the European Association of Urology/EAU Section of Urological Research in 2010.
Dr. Kyprianou was a postdoctoral fellow in the Department of Urology at Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine and
at the Johns Hopkins Sidney Kimmel Comprehensive Cancer Center from 1987 to 1990.

Melissa A. McGrath
Huntsville, Alabama

Dr. McGrath is the chief scientist at NASA’s Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, Alabama. She is a leader
in planetary astronomy, particularly from space. Her research explores the properties of the moons of Jupiter, focusing on the
largest one, Io, and has led to a better understanding of the electrodynamic interactions between these moons and Jupiter’s
magnetic field. She has investigated the nature of the tenuous atmosphere of Io and how this gas fuels the plasma torus
about Jupiter. She has been the principal investigator on numerous space- and ground-based observing programs, and has
lectured worldwide on the results of her scientific research. In recent years, she has served in top management positions both
at NASA Headquarters in Washington, D.C., and at Marshall Space Flight Center, where she was appointed deputy director
of the Science and Technology Directorate in 2005. In this position, she supported the director in managing operations and
business planning for the organization and helped oversee all Earth and space science activities at the Marshall Center. Dr.
McGrath was a postdoctoral fellow in the Department of Physics and Astronomy at Johns Hopkins from 1987 to 1991. In
1991, she became an associate research scientist with the department and remained an adjunct professor until 1994. She
moved in 1992 to a science staff position at the Space Telescope Science Institute, located on the Johns Hopkins Homewood campus.
She remained at STScI for 13 years, becoming head of the Community Missions Office, with responsibilities

for overseeing contracts and developing new business ventures. Dr. McGrath is a member of numerous professional
organizations, including the American Astronomical Society and the International Astronomical Union. She is the author or
co-author of more than 100 technical publications, primarily focused on atmospheric and planetary studies of other worlds
and moons in the solar system. She is an expert in performing astronomical observations of planets, which require special
techniques that are different from those used for stars and galaxies, and has had a major role in the success of the Hubble
Space Telescope in obtaining planetary observations.

Thomas V. Perneger
Geneva, Switzerland

Dr. Perneger is head of the Division of Clinical Epidemiology at University Hospitals of Geneva and a professor
at the University of Geneva, where he teaches research methods and works with clinicians to foster effective and relevant
research into a variety of medical conditions. In addition to providing methodological support to clinical studies, he and his
team develop new methods to analyze study results, measure patient-related outcomes and enable valid causal inferences.
Through these activities, he has helped raise the quality of research not only at his institution but also in Switzerland and
beyond. His more than 250 peer-reviewed publications have been cited more than 10,000 times. After being trained as a
physician in Geneva, Dr. Perneger sought training in research methods at the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public
Health, where he received a Master of Public Health degree in 1989, a Master of Health Science degree in biostatistics in
1991 and a doctorate in epidemiology in 1993. For his doctoral thesis, he designed and carried out the first case-control
study of end-stage renal disease. Following his residence at Johns Hopkins, Dr. Perneger turned his interests to the evaluation
of health systems and the improvement of quality and safety of health care, and he contributed to the development of
rigorous assessment methods and instruments in this field. His work bridges the gap between system-oriented health research
and the search to find the best care for the individual patient.

Ren Donglai
Nanjing, China

Dr. Ren is a professor of international history and American history at the Hopkins-Nanjing Center in Nanjing,
China. Trained as a U.S. diplomatic historian, he worked on the history of U.S.-Chinese relations during World War II.
Early in his career, his research explored the cooperation and conflicts between the U.S. government and the Chinese
Nationalist government in the context of the anti-Japanese alliance. In the past decade, he has shifted his interests to U.S.
constitutional history, particularly Supreme Court history. He has introduced U.S. constitutionalism to Chinese professional
and popular audiences by recounting milestone cases and the decisions of prominent justices. His book The American
Constitutional Experience, published in 2004, has sold more than 40,000 copies and has become one of the most cited
works in the Chinese literature on Western law and constitutionalism. Dr. Ren’s recent essays and reviews have appeared
in the Shanghai Review of Books, Reading Books and Teahouse for Lawyers. He has served as vice president of the American
History Research Association of China and as a member of the editorial board of American Studies Quarterly, the official
publication of the Institute of American Studies, Chinese Academy of Social Sciences and Chinese Association of American
Studies. Dr. Ren received his master’s degree in international politics from the Chinese Academy of Social Sciences in 1985
and his doctorate from Nankai University in 1988. He was the first PhD working in U.S. history who was trained in the
People’s Republic of China. He has been a visiting scholar at the University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill (1992–93), the
Norwegian Nobel Institute (1993), the Wilson Center in Washington, D.C. (1994), the Paul H. Nitze School of Advanced
International Studies of Johns Hopkins University (1999–2000) and the Drake University Law School (2005–2006).

Geoffrey Schoenbaum
Baltimore, Maryland

Dr. Schoenbaum heads the Cellular Neurobiology Research Branch at the National Institute on Drug Abuse.
After completing his PhD and MD degrees, he received a Research Scientist Award from the National Institutes of Health
(1997–2003) to work in the lab of Professor Michela Gallagher in the Zanvyl Krieger School of Arts and Sciences at
Johns Hopkins, where he began to carve a path for understanding some of the fundamental attributes of the brain used in
decision making and adaptive behavior. Since then, his contributions, extending to clinical brain disorders, have become
widely recognized. His research has centered on learning processes through which organisms use regularities in their world
to predict the consequences of their actions and are adept at noticing changes to modify these predictions and successfully
adapt. Notably, Dr. Schoenbaum’s work isolated key neural circuits in the brains of rodents for these core functions. His
work also demonstrated how addictive drugs like cocaine cause long-term changes to such circuits, even outlasting drug
exposure itself and leading to a loss of behavioral control. Among the recognitions his work has received is the Society for
Neuroscience’s 2009 Jacob P. Waletzky Award for innovative and seminal studies on the mechanisms of drug addiction.

Robert Udelsman
New Haven, Connecticut

Dr. Udelsman is the William H. Carmalt Professor of Surgery and chairman of the Department of Surgery at
Yale School of Medicine, and surgeon-in-chief at Yale–New Haven Hospital. He is internationally known for his work
on minimally invasive endocrine surgery, including thyroid, parathyroid and adrenal procedures. His research involves
developing techniques and evaluating outcomes in an effort to improve endocrine surgery. Recently, he has been working
on a project to analyze intra-operative hormone data to predict cure rates during surgery. He is the current president of the
International Association of Endocrine Surgeons and in 2005–2006 was president of the American Association of Endocrine
Surgeons. Dr. Udelsman received his BA from Lafayette College (1977) and his MD from the George Washington
University School of Medicine and Health Sciences (1981). At Johns Hopkins, he completed his general surgical residency
(1981–89) and a clinical fellowship in gastrointestinal surgery (1989–90). Other fellowships were performed at the Surgery
Branch of the National Cancer Institute (1983–85) and the Developmental Endocrinology Branch of the National Institute
of Child Health and Human Development (1983–86). Dr. Udelsman’s academic surgical career began at Johns Hopkins
(1990–2001), where he rose to the rank of professor. He has published 193 peer-reviewed manuscripts, 103 book chapters
and two books. He is also a historian and lectures on the birth of chemotherapy and on the surgeon Harvey Cushing.

Selwyn M. Vickers
Minneapolis, Minnesota

Dr. Vickers is the Jay Phillips Professor and chairman of the Department of Surgery at the University of Minnesota
and the associate director of Translational Research for the Masonic Cancer Center. A nationally recognized leader in
academic surgery and pancreatic disease as well as a clinical scientist, he has made significant contributions in both patient
care and laboratory investigation. He has more than 100 peer-reviewed publications and a successful track record of grant
funding. After training as a hepatobiliary surgeon and surgical oncologist at Johns Hopkins, he joined the faculty of the
University of Alabama at Birmingham, where he was an active leader in the cancer center and in the development of the
UAB Pancreaticobiliary Center, serving as its founding co-director. He was also founding principal investigator of UAB’s
EXPORT Program, which was funded by the National Center on Minority Health and Health Disparities, and co-founder
of the UAB Minority Health and Research Center. Dr. Vickers is a member of the Institute of Medicine and a director of
the American Board of Surgery. He is currently co-principal investigator of the UAB/UMN SPORE in Pancreatic Cancer, 
a collaboration with the UAB Comprehensive Cancer Center. He is also principal investigator of the Surgical Oncology
Research Training Program, co–principal investigator of Enhancing Minority Participation in Clinical Trials II, and the
education and training core director for the Center for Health Equity, UMN’s P60 National Institute on Minority Health
and Health Disparities Center of Excellence.

Rochelle Walensky
Boston, Massachusetts

A professor of medicine at Harvard Medical School and an infectious disease physician at Massachusetts General
and Brigham and Women’s hospitals, Dr. Walensky has made tremendous intellectual contributions to the fields of HIV
medicine and global health policy. She was the first investigator to assess the cumulative survival benefits of AIDS treatment
in the United States, justifying increased investment in research and treatment, and she established much of the evidence
base supporting expanded HIV screening and treatment. She has developed a portfolio of model-based assessments of the
clinical benefits and cost-effectiveness of expanded HIV screening, improved linkage to care, earlier treatment initiation
and optimal laboratory use. Merging clinical, epidemiological and economic methods, Dr. Walensky has generated a new
evidence base to support global priority setting and has achieved research insights that could not be addressed by any of these
disciplines alone. Her work has fundamentally changed the care of HIV disease and allocation of funds. Dr. Walensky is a
member of the American Society for Clinical Investigation and of the Department of Health and Human Services Panel on
Antiretroviral Guidelines for Adults and Adolescents. She is also one of 12 experts on the Office of AIDS Research Advisory
Council, a group selected from leading members of scientific disciplines in the United States and appointed by Department
of Health and Human Services Secretary Kathleen Sebelius. Dr. Walensky received her MD degree from the Johns Hopkins
School of Medicine in 1995 and trained in internal medicine on the Longcope Firm at Johns Hopkins Hospital from 1995
to 1998.

2012

Timothy G. Buchman
Atlanta, Georgia

Dr. Buchman is widely recognized as a leading authority in critical care, with research spanning the bench-to-bedside continuum and including studies of multiple organ dysfunction syndrome, genetics of sepsis and end-of-life care. He has recently expanded his research to apply systems biology to critical care and clinical medicine. A professor of surgery and anesthesiology at the Emory University School of Medicine, he is the founding director of the Emory Center for Critical Care, the first of its kind in the nation. Dr. Buchman is president of the Shock Society and past president of the Society for Complexity in Acute Illness and the Society of Critical Care Medicine. Before joining Emory, he served as professor of surgery and director of acute and criti- cal care surgery at Washington University School of Medicine in St. Louis. Prior to his time at Washington University, Dr. Buchman directed the surgical intensive care unit and the trauma center at The Johns Hopkins Hospital, where he was an intern and assistant resident from 1980 to 1983 and chief resident in the Department of Surgery from 1984 to 1985.

Daniel Garber
Princeton, New Jersey

Dr. Garber is one of the foremost scholars of early modern philosophy and science. His significant contributions have helped create a thriving community of early modern philosophy academics on both sides of the Atlantic. A member of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, he is the Stuart Professor of Philosophy and chair of the Department of Philosophy at Princeton University. Dr. Garber was a visiting assistant professor at Johns Hopkins from 1980 to 1981, after which he published a series of groundbreaking articles and books on the physics of Descartes and Leibniz. His academic research combines historical precision with philosophical rigor in a manner that is second to none, and he is currently working on a variety of topics, including the scientific revolution and 17th-century Aristotelianism in France. Dr. Garber is the founder and co-editor of the leading journal Oxford Studies in Early Modern Philosophy and the editor-in-chief of a new edition of the works of the seminal 17th- century thinker Jacobus Fontialis.

James E.K. Hildreth
Davis, California

Dr. Hildreth is a pre-eminent AIDS researcher, academic and mentor whose groundbreaking work has led to new therapeutic/ preventive directions, including candidate microbiocides for clinical development. A Rhodes Scholar, he completed postdoctoral work in the Johns Hopkins Department of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics in 1984 and then became a member of the faculty, achieving the rank of professor in 2002. While at Johns Hopkins, he was also the School of Medicine’s inaugural associate dean for graduate student affairs. In 2005, Dr. Hildreth joined the faculty at Meharry Medical College, where he founded the Center for HIV/AIDS Health Disparities Research. In 2011, he was selected as dean of the College of Biological Sciences at the University of California, Davis, with appointments in the college’s departments of Molecular and Cell Biology and of Internal Medicine. He has been widely recognized for his contributions to serving the health care needs of underserved and underrepresented populations, including being elected to membership in the Institute of Medicine and being named the recipient of a 2011 NIH Pioneer Award.

Alan F. Karr
Research Triangle Park, North Carolina

Dr. Karr is an innovative and cross-disciplinary thinker, engaging in research that links the field of statistics to materials science, software engineering and transportation. He helped found the National Institute of Statistical Sciences in 1992 and has been its director since 2000. In this role, he manages one of the world’s most important statistics research organizations. Dr. Karr is an intellectual leader in the area of inference for point processes, notably for his work generalizing Cox regression, and he co-authored the first paper that demonstrated how to determine whether two neurons were being stimulated by a common source. In 1984, Dr. Karr was elected a fellow of the Institute of Mathematical Statistics for groundbreaking work in stochastic processes. In 1997, he was named a fel- low of the American Statistical Association in recognition of his achievements and for outstanding service to the statistics profession. At Johns Hopkins, he joined the Whiting School of Engineering’s Department of Mathematical Sciences in 1973 and achieved the rank of full professor in 1983. He chaired the department from 1985 to 1986 and then served as an associate dean in the school until 1992.

Christoph Lengauer
Cambridge, Massachusetts

Dr. Lengauer has risen to the top of his profession—cancer drug discovery—at a meteoric pace. He was a postdoctoral fellow in oncology at Johns Hopkins from 1994 to 1996 and then joined the faculty, subsequently becoming an associate professor of oncology; he also directed the Cell Imaging Core Facility at the Sidney Kimmel Comprehensive Cancer Center. In 2005, Dr. Lengauer became a unit head at the Novartis Institutes for Biomedical Research. Over the next three years, he was promoted to executive director of drug discovery at Novartis and then was named head of the company’s global Oncology Target Identification and Validation group. He received the Novartis Oncology President’s Award in 2007 as the top innova tor in the company. Recognizing his unique talents, Sanofi recruited Dr. Lengauer to be the global head of oncology discovery, supervising the work of more than 350 scientists. Dr. Lengauer currently serves as chief scientific officer of Blueprint Medicines, a developer of state-of-the-art personalized cancer therapies. In addition to serving as consultant and adviser to international groups, Dr. Lengauer has been responsible for the development of several new chemotherapeutic agents now in clinical trials.

Vincent C. Manganiello
Bethesda, Maryland

Dr. Manganiello is internationally recognized for his studies of cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterases, a multigene family that regulates many fundamental biological processes by controlling intracellular cAMP and cGMP concentrations. He received his medical degree and a doctoral degree in physiological chemistry from Johns Hopkins and served as an intern in the Harriet Lane Pediatric Service from 1967 to 1968. In 1968, Dr. Manganiello joined the National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute, where he is chief of the Laboratory of Biochemical Physiology in the Cardiovascular and Pulmonary Branch. He has focused his research primarily on the PDE3 gene family because of its relevance to the understanding and treatment of diabetes and obesity, cardiovascular disease and female infertility.

Teri A. Manolio
Bethesda, Maryland

Dr. Manolio is an accomplished cardiovascular epidemiologist with prominence as a scientist and leader at the National Institutes of Health. Among her many accomplishments, she initiated and expanded major national studies, including the Cardiovascular Health Study, Multi-Ethic Study of Atherosclerosis, Jackson Heart Study and Framingham Study Third Generation, to incorporate state-of-the-art sciences, such as imaging of subclinical atherosclerotic disease, health disparities and genomewide linkage analyses. In 2005, Dr. Manolio moved to the National Human Genome Research Institute to integrate genomic technologies into population studies on a broader scale. She established critically needed, collaborative genomewide association studies across unrelated diseases and created guidelines for sharing genomic data widely with protections for participant confidentiality. Dr. Manolio is director of the Office of Population Genomics at NHGRI and senior adviser to the director of NHGRI for population genomics. She was a fellow in the Division of General Internal Medicine at Johns Hopkins from 1984 to 1987.

Stephen J. McPhee
San Francisco, California

Dr. McPhee is a master physician, prolific researcher, leading editor of core clinical textbooks and honored mentor of researchers and medical students. A practicing physician and emeritus professor of medicine at the University of California, San Francisco, he is recognized as one of the top internists on the West Coast. He has been the principal investigator on nearly 70 grants and contracts, with a primary focus on cancer prevention; health promotion and disease prevention among Vietnamese and other Asian populations; and palliative, end-of-life and geriatric care. Dr. McPhee has worked with more than 125 hospitals to establish palliative care consultation services. From 2000 to 2008, he and his colleagues at UCSF coordinated a bimonthly series titled “Perspectives on Care at the Close of Life” that appeared in the Journal of the American Medical Association. Dr. McPhee has served as editor for several medical textbooks and references, written more than 40 books and published more than 175 scientific articles in peer-reviewed medical literature. He received his medical degree from Johns Hopkins in 1976 and was an intern, assistant resident and fellow in the Department of Medicine from 1976 to 1980.

Iman Nuwayhid
Beirut, Lebanon

Dr. Nuwayhid, professor and dean of the Faculty of Health Sciences at the American University of Beirut, is a leader in research, education and effective policy development in public health in Lebanon and the Middle East. After receiving a master’s degree in occupational medicine and epidemiology from the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health in 1985, he returned to Lebanon, where he has become an important change agent in public health and health services. During his career, Dr. Nuwayhid has made outstanding advances in the field of occupational health research in developing countries, specifically regarding accident and injury prevention, drinking water safety and waterborne illness prevention, prevention of neurobehavioral impairment in children due to toxic occupational exposures, and pediatric and adult lead poisoning control and prevention. Dr. Nuwayhid has led many efforts in policy development for environmental health and has inspired students and junior colleagues through his teaching and research achievements.

Paolo Pasquini
Rome, Italy

Dr. Pasquini has had an illustrious career, with significant contributions to areas as diverse as infectious diseases, dermatology and psychiatry. After receiving his master’s degree in public health from the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health in 1977, he became medical officer for the Regional Health Department in Rome. He then joined the clinical epidemiology unit at the Istituto Superiore de Sanitá, Italy’s national health institute. After a brief stint at the World Health Organization, he became director of research at the ISS, and subsequently assumed his current role as scientific director and director of clinical research and psychology at the Istituto Dermopatico dell’Immacolata, an institution devoted to clinical care and research in dermatology. At the IDI, Dr. Pasquini’s experience in psychiatry and cognitive psychotherapy allowed him to study the epidemiology of psychiatric disorders and their relation to skin conditions. Dr. Pasquini’s productivity as a researcher is reflected in his numerous articles in peer-reviewed journals. His achievements in the field of dermatology and its interface with psychiatry have included seminal studies of depression, psycho- logical distress and borderline personality disorder.

John A. Phillips III
Nashville, Tennessee

Dr. Phillips is widely recognized for his contributions to under- standing the molecular mechanisms that can cause genetic developmental disabilities. For 27 years, he has led the Division of Pediatric Genetics at Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, where he is the David T. Karzon Professor of Pediatrics, with joint appointments in Biochemistry, Medicine and Pathology. Among his achievements in the use of molecular methods to discover the molecular bases of Mendelian disorders, Dr. Phillips found that familial growth hormone deficiency can result from GH1 gene deletions, a discovery that explains why affected individuals often develop anti-GH antibodies and resistance to growth hormone replacement therapy. Subsequently, he found that Isolated GHD Type II is caused by dominant negative effects of exon-skipping mutations, and that germline transmission of small interfering RNA cured a murine model of IGHD II. In familial idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, his research uncovered mutations in the surfactant and telomerase genes. Dr. Phillips was a research fellow in the Pediatrics Genetics Unit at Johns Hopkins from 1975 to 1977, and a member of the university’s faculty from 1977 to 1984.

Robert P. Schleimer
Chicago, Illinois

Dr. Schleimer is acknowledged as an outstanding scientist by the clinical, academic and phar- maceutical communities. He is chief of the Division of Allergy- Immunology in the Department of Medicine, the Roy and Elaine Patterson Professor of Medicine and professor of otolaryngology–head and neck surgery at the Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine. From 1979 to 1981, Dr. Schleimer was a postdoctoral fellow at Johns Hopkins in the Division of Allergy and Clinical Immunology. He joined the faculty in 1981 and achieved the rank of professor of medicine before moving to Northwestern University in 2004. His long- standing research focus is on the immunopharmacology of allergic inflammation, cell adhesion, migration and, more recently, innate and acquired immune responses of the upper airways in humans. Dr. Schleimer has received NIH funding for more than 25 years, and he recently received an NIH Merit Award from the National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute. He has been a member of the scientific advisory boards of more than a dozen pharmaceutical companies and has published more than 260 papers and edited numerous books and journal supplements. He has trained more than 35 postdoctoral fellows and graduate students, with the majority becoming established investigators in academia and industry.

Achim Schneider
Berlin, Germany

Dr. Schneider is among the pioneers who developed, perfected and evaluated laparoscopic techniques to assist in the treatment of gynecological cancers. He is a professor of gynecology and gynecologic oncology and chairman of the Department of Gynecology and Gynecologic Oncology and Breast Center at the Charité- University Medicine Berlin. He came to Johns Hopkins in 1985 to study human papillomaviruses and cervical cancer. During his research, he realized the importance of epidemiologic concepts in clinical investigations, and he returned to Johns Hopkins to gain expertise in epidemiology, receiving a master’s degree in public health in 1989. Dr. Schneider has achieved high distinction and international recognition for his subsequent research in HPV and cervical cancer and for the development and value of laparoscopic surgery in gynecologic oncology. Dr. Schneider has published more than 113 papers and has been a visiting professor at the University of Arizona and the Barbara Jordan More Visiting Professor in Gynecologic Oncology at Memorial Sloan- Kettering Cancer Center. Currently, he is a member of the World Health Organization working group that produced the report Comprehensive Cervical Cancer Control: A Guide to Essential Practice.

Arjun Srinivasan
Atlanta, Georgia

Dr. Srinivasan is leading the anti- biotic stewardship efforts and the public campaign to improve anti- biotic use with the ultimate goal of decreasing the health care bur- den of multidrug-resistant organsms. A captain in the U.S. Public Health Service, Dr. Srinivasan is associate director for Healthcare Associated Infection Prevention Programs in the Division of Healthcare Quality Promotion at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. He was an intern, resident and fellow in the Department of Medicine at Johns Hopkins from 1996 to 2001. He then served as an assistant profes- sor of medicine in the Infectious Diseases Division, where he was the founding director of the Antimicrobial Stewardship Program and the associate hospital epidemiologist. Since joining the CDC, Dr. Srinivasan has led more than 35 investigations of outbreaks. As a result of these investigations, changes in national policy and guidelines have been implemented to prevent health care–associated infections. He provides CDC oversight and coordination of the efforts of all state health department activities related to health care–associated infections, and is the medical director for the Get Smart for Healthcare initiative, a CDC program designed to improve the use of antimicrobials in inpatient health care facilities. Dr. Srinivasan has published several articles in peer-reviewed journals on his research in health care epidemiology, infection control, and antimicrobial use and resistance.

Steven L. Wesselingh
Adelaide, South Australia

Dr. Wesselingh is internationally recognized as an expert in viruses that affect the human brain, and he has played a key role in demonstrating the importance of inflammatory mediators in HIV- associated dementia. He was a postdoctoral fellow and assistant professor in the Department of Neurology at Johns Hopkins from 1991 to 1994. Upon returning to Australia in 1994, Dr. Wesselingh established the Neurovirology Research Unit at Flinders and quickly became a leader in Australian academic medicine. In 1998, he was president of the Australian Society for Medical Research. In 1999, he was appointed director of the Infectious Diseases Unit at the Alfred Hospital and Monash University and subsequently became director of the Burnet Institute, Australia’s largest biomedical research group specializing in infectious diseases, immunology and public health. In 2007, he became dean of the Faculty of Medicine, Nursing and Health Sciences at Monash University, and in 2011, he was appointed to his current position as executive director of the South Australian Health and Medical Research Institute.

2011

Eric Brill
San Jose, California

Dr. Brill is an influential scholar who has changed the fabric of modern electronic commerce and human interaction with machines. His research has greatly affected our experiences on the Internet, from the search engine results we receive and the online ads we see to the conduct of electronic commerce. As a director at Microsoft Research and currently as the vice president directing eBay Research Labs, Dr. Brill has revolutionized several major fields in natural language processing, human-computer interaction and machine learning. His research in how machines understand human language, behavior and preferences has enabled wide-ranging improvements in personalizing the online experience. The algorithms and systems he creates are often better able than human analysts in predicting, and adapting to, online user behavior. Dr. Brill was an assistant professor at Johns Hopkins from 1994 to 1999 in the Whiting School’s Department of Computer Science.

Kathleen Ruth Cho
Ann Arbor, Michigan
Dr. Cho is widely recognized as a leading authority in both basic and clinical studies of gynecologic malignancies. Her work has provided critical insights into the molecular pathogenesis of cervical and ovarian cancer. Recently, her group engineered powerful mouse models to study the biology of ovarian cancer and test new therapeutic approaches to treatment. Dr. Cho serves as associate editor for Clinical Cancer Research and Laboratory Investigation and is a senior editor of Cancer Research. From 1984 to 1991, she completed her internship,residency and fellowship in the Department of Pathology and the Oncology Center at the Johns Hopkins School of Medicine. She is now the Peter A. Ward Professor of Pathology at the University of Michigan Medical School. Her expertise is recognized by her participation in many grant application study sections, review committees andadvisory panels at the national level.

Anna Mae Diehl
Durham, North Carolina
Dr. Diehl is a nationally recognized expert in chronic liver disease. During her more than 30 years as a physician and researcher, she has helped transform our understanding of gastroenterology and hepatology. By translating her pioneering findings about liver injury and repair to clinical applications, she is paving the way for advanced treatments for a wide range of liver diseases. From 1978 to 1984, she completed her internal medicine and gastroenterology training at the Johns Hopkins School of Medicine. Currently, she is chief of the Gastroenterology Division and director of the Liver Center at Duke University School of Medicine. Dr. Diehl’s research, which has been supported by the NIH for more than 20 years, has broad relevance that will impact research in the fields of obesity, cancer metastasis and liver disease. Her research offers key insights into how the immune system regulates liver injury and regeneration, and what role fetal morphogens, such as members of the hedgehog transduction pathway, play in regulating fibrotic responses to liver damage. Additionally, Dr. Diehl has advanced her field by mentoring a generation of gastroenterologists especially interested in liver disease.

Norman Fost
Madison, Wisconsin
Dr. Fost is often the first to propose a new way of thinking about timely bioethical issues. He led the writing of the first guidelines for research involving human embryonic stem cells and was later a key member of the Institute of Medicine committee whose stem cell guidelines have become the national standard. He co-wrote the first paper providing the rationale for the use of hospital ethics committees to resolve disputes about end-of life care. He challenged the belief that the root cause of a patient’s short stature was morally relevant in deciding whether to provide human growth hormone treatments, leading to a universal change in practice. And he was the first to challenge conventional views about the use of performance-enhancing drugs by elite athletes; his critiques are now widespread, commonly held views. Dr. Fost was a fellow and a resident in the Department of Pediatrics at the Johns Hopkins School of Medicine from 1964 to 1971 and is now a professor of pediatrics, medical history and bioethics at the University of Wisconsin, Madison.

Stephen W. Hargarten
Milwaukee, Wisconsin
Dr. Hargarten has had a highly distinguished career as a scholar, teacher and practitioner in the fields of injury prevention, gun violence, emergency medicine and travel medicine. He is founding director of the Injury Research Center at the Medical College of Wisconsin, funded by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. He has served as national president of the Society for Advancement of Violence and Injury Research and the National Association of Injury Control Research Centers. His research has ranged from the primary prevention of injuries to the administration of acute care in emergency departments. He also pioneered new data collection systems for violence. He is internationally known for translating research findings into meaningful policy at the local, state and federal levels. Dr. Hargarten, who completed his Master of Public Health studies at Johns Hopkins in 1984, has shown how a clinician and academic administrator can successfully engage in research and policymaking for the primary prevention of illness and injuries on a global basis.

Gordan Lauc
Zagreb, Croatia
Dr. Lauc studies the biological role of certain types of sugar molecules known as glycans. Contrary to proteins, which are encoded by a single gene, glycans result from the interplay of hundreds of different genes and are apparently responsible for many aspects of human variability. He led the first comprehensive study of the human plasma glycome, cataloging all of the different types of sugars found in our blood and plasma. His research uncovered many variations from person to person in the types of sugar molecules present in our bodies but determined that each individual’s collection of sugars is stable and doesn’t seem to change much with time. His approach of analyzing both genome and glycome in the same individuals resulted in the identification of an important regulatory mechanism in protein glycosylation and new biomarkers for a number of diseases, including pancreatitis, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and a single-gene subtype of diabetes. Now at the University of Zagreb, where he is the youngest full professor and the youngest vice dean of a medical school in the history of Croatia, Dr. Lauc was a visiting professor at Johns Hopkins from 1997 to 1998 in the Krieger School’s Department of Biology.

Michael A. Levine
Philadelphia, Pennsylvania
Dr. Levine, considered by his peers to be the consummate physician-scientist, is a pediatric endocrinologist world-renowned for groundbreaking studies of human genetic disorders relating to bone and mineral metabolism. His primary clinical interests include osteoporosis, hypoparathyroidism, primary hyperparathyroidism, rickets and genetic bone diseases. Dr. Levine was the first to identify the molecular basis of several inherited disorders of mineral metabolism, including Albright hereditary osteodystrophy and McCune- Albright syndrome, disorders that affect bone metabolism and calcium homeostasis. From 1976 to 1982, Dr. Levine completed his pediatric endocrinology training as an intern, resident and fellow at the Johns Hopkins School of Medicine. Today, he is director of the Division of Endocrinology and Diabetes at The Children’s Hospital of Philadelphia, where he holds the Lester Baker Endowed Chair in Pediatric Diabetes, and also is professor of pediatrics and medicine at the University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine.

Kenneth J. Pienta
Ann Arbor, Michigan
Dr. Pienta is a classic “triple threat” physician-scientist, recognized equally for his work in clinical and basic research, patient care and mentoring. He has profoundly influenced the entire field of prostate cancer internationally, especially by his ability to translate research findings into applications that help patients now. A clinical fellow in the Department of Urology at the Johns Hopkins School of Medicine from 1988 to 1991, Dr. Pienta is now a professor of internal medicine and urology and associate dean for clinical and translational research at the University of Michigan School of Medicine. He has been the principal investigator on numerous local and national clinical trials, and is a two-time American Cancer Society Clinical Research Professor Award recipient. Dr. Pienta has mentored more than 40 students, residents and fellows to successful careers in medicine.

Linda M. Reilly
San Francisco, California
Dr. Reilly is one of the country’s top surgeons specializing in complex aortic procedures and is considered the go-to specialist for extremely complicated cases in her region and far beyond. Generous about sharing that expertise with others, she has trained 36 vascular fellows since 1985, including numerous chiefs of vascular surgery across the country. A leader in her field, she is also known for her research into the development of new endoscopic surgical methods for placing aortic grafts. Dr. Reilly was a resident from 1976 to 1982 in the Department of Surgery at the Johns Hopkins School of Medicine. Today, she is professor in residence in the Department of Surgery at the University of California, San Francisco, and has been the General Surgery Program director there since 1998. Dr. Reilly presents her work on aortic reconstruction across the country and the world, and has published 102 manuscripts, six abstracts and 29 book chapters.

Madeline A. Shea
Iowa City, Iowa
Dr. Shea is internationally recognized for devising statistical thermodynamic models of complex biological systems. Her modeling of cellular life processes has set a new standard for 21st-century biology. Her early research as a postdoctoral fellow from 1984 to 1986 in the Krieger School’s Department of Biology at Johns Hopkins unveiled the workings of the classic genetic switch bacteriophage lambda. Cited hundreds of times, this study stands as a landmark demonstration quantifying essential aspects of a cell’s life cycle. Dr. Shea has revolutionized biological understandings of calmodulin, an essential human protein critical in the nervous, heart and reproductive systems. Her investigations explore the very essence of living systems, and her outcomes continue to transform prevailing views of how networks of biological molecules maintain and regulate cellular life. Dr. Shea is a professor of biochemistry at the University of Iowa’s Carver College of Medicine.

Jonathan W. Simons
Santa Monica, California
Dr. Simons is one of the world’s leading translational cancer researchers, a physician-scientist who moves basic science discoveries out of the lab and into clinical applications. He was principal investigator for some of the earliest gene therapy trials, using modified cancer cell vaccines to treat kidney and prostate cancers. He also conducted important studies that helped explain the bone pain, weight loss, malaise and poor immune responsiveness associated with prostate cancer. His distinguished career began in the Johns Hopkins School of Medicine, where he earned his MD degree and later was a fellow in the Laboratory of Molecular Genetics of Dr. Bert Vogelstein in the school’s Oncology Center. In 1999, he became founding director of Emory University’s Winship Cancer Institute and served as co-director at the National Cancer Institute Center for Cancer Nanotechnology Excellence at Emory and Georgia Tech. Since 2007, he has been chief executive officer and president of the Prostate Cancer Foundation.

Roger E. Stevenson
Greenwood, South Carolina
Dr. Stevenson has made enormous contributions to patients and families with genetic disorders and to the field of genetic medicine. He has focused largely on unraveling the causes of birth defects and developmental impairments. He has published more than 180 papers describing more than 20 mental retardation syndromes, written two editions of the textbook The Fetus and Newly Born Infant: Influences of the Prenatal Environment and co-authored the definitive text on X-linked mental retardation. Between 1967 and 1972, he received training at the Johns Hopkins School of Medicine as a pediatrics resident and a fellow in the divisions of Metabolism and Genetics. In 1974, Dr. Stevenson co-founded the Greenwood Genetics Center and helped build it into an internationally respected nonprofit organization that advances medical genetics research and cares for families affected by genetic disease and birth defects. He recently stepped down as director but will continue to pursue his important clinical and research work at the center.

Flaura Koplin Winston
Philadelphia, Pennsylvania
Dr. Winston has focused her career on creating evidence-based methods of preventing children from being injured in car crashes. She is the founder and scientific director of The Children’s Hospital of Philadelphia’s groundbreaking Center for Injury Research and Prevention, which is a leading resource for child automotive safety. Trained in biomechanics and pediatrics, Dr. Winston was the first to recognize airbag injuries to children and determine their mechanism, leading to changes in airbag design and regulation. In addition, after discovering that only a quarter of children ages 3 to 7 who are involved in crashes had been properly restrained, Dr. Winston led efforts nationally to upgrade child restraint laws. A postdoctoral fellow in the Department of Health Policy and Management at the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health from 1994 to 1995, Dr. Winston is now a professor of pediatrics at the University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine.

2010

Jeremy M. Berg
Bethesda, Maryland

Since 2003, Dr. Berg has directed the National Institute of General Medical Sciences, one of the National Institutes of Health. In this role, he oversees a $1.9 billion budget that funds basic research in cell biology, biophysics, genetics, developmental biology, pharmacology, physiology, biological chemistry, bioinformatics and computational biology. Before accepting this post, he spent nearly two decades at Johns Hopkins. After serving as a postdoctoral fellow in the School of Medicine and an assistant professor in the Krieger School's Department of Chemistry, he became the School of Medicine's director of the Institute for Basic Biomedical Sciences and director of the Department of Biophysics and Biophysical Chemistry. Dr. Berg's own research has focused on the structural and functional roles that metal ions, especially zinc, play in proteins. This led to major contributions to our understanding of how zinc-containing proteins bind to genetic material. His work has contributed to the design of metal-containing proteins that control the activity of specific genes.

Jared Leigh Cohon
Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania

Dr. Cohon, president of Carnegie Mellon University since 1997, previously spent 19 years at Johns Hopkins as a Department of Geography and Environmental Engineering faculty member, an assistant and associate dean of the Whiting School of Engineering, and vice provost for research. Here, he developed complex methodologies and tools for water resources analysis and infrastructure planning. He showed that these tools could be useful in diverse applications, including operation of reservoirs and hydroelectric power plants, EMS/fire station location, power plant and hazardous waste landfill siting, transportation network optimization and water treatment plant design. His 1978 book, Multiobjective Programming and Planning, is a classic in the field. Because of his expertise, he has been called upon by the National Academies to lead investigations on planning for extreme floods and on measuring infrastructure performance; by Pittsburgh regional leaders to spearhead efforts to improve local water quality; and by the president of the United States to lead an evaluation of the Department of Energy's technical work on the Yucca Mountain nuclear waste repository.

Herman Z. Cummins*
For more than half a century, Dr. Cummins played a pioneering role in the development of light-scattering techniques and their application to the study of materials. His far-reaching and elegant experiments provided extraordinary insight into problems ranging from the physics of phase transitions and the mobility of biological molecules to patterns created by growing crystals and the mechanisms that cause liquids to change into glass. Dr. Cummins also co-invented laser Doppler velocimetry, a technique for measuring the direction and speed of fluids that now has wide use in medicine, chemical engineering and the geosciences. Author of more than 170 scientific papers and recipient of numerous awards and honors, Dr. Cummins was a Distinguished Professor Emeritus of Physics at the City College of the City University of New York. He was also a fellow of the American Physical Society, the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, the American Association for the Advancement of Science and the National Academy of Sciences. Dr. Cummins spent his early career at Johns Hopkins, where he was an assistant professor in the Department of Physics and Astronomy from 1964 to 1967.

Stephen H. Davis
Evanston, Illinois

Dr. Davis is one of today's leading theoretical fluid mechanicians. He has made groundbreaking contributions to our understanding of the dynamics and stability characteristics of interface phenomena in fluids, thin films and crystal growth. The mathematical tools and insights gained from his work have applications in developing improved coatings to protect materials from hostile environments, in understanding the spreading of liquids on solid surfaces and in predicting solid film geometry for semiconductors formed by vapor deposition. Between 1968 and 1978, he held faculty positions at Johns Hopkins in Mechanics, Earth and Planetary Sciences, and Materials Science. Dr. Davis is listed as a most-cited author in his field and is a member of the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering. As editor of the Journal of Fluid Mechanics and the Annual Review of Fluid Mechanics, he has guided these two journals, the most prestigious in the field, with excellence and vision.

Eva L. Feldman
Ann Arbor, Michigan

An internationally known authority on the complications of diabetes, Dr. Feldman is the Russell N. DeJong Professor of Neurology and director of both the Juvenile Diabetes Research Foundation Center for the Study of Complications in Diabetes and the ALS Clinic at the University of Michigan. Her research not only has made a tremendous impact on how we think about the causes of diabetic neuropathy, but it has also led to a better understanding of why current therapies are sometimes ineffective, and it is likely to lead to new therapeutic targets. In the early 1980s, while Dr. Feldman was a resident and chief resident in the Department of Neurology at Johns Hopkins, she was the first neurologist to receive the Johns Hopkins Award for Medical Teaching and Excellence. In addition to her clinical and research work, Dr. Feldman has an impressive track record as a mentor dedicated to passing on her knowledge and experience to a new generation of dedicated professionals.

Jonathan Haslam
Cambridge, U.K.

Dr. Haslam is a distinguished historian of Soviet foreign relations leading up to World War II and in the Cold War period. Early in his career he wrote three books about Soviet foreign policy under Stalin. Then, while he was at Johns Hopkins' School of Advanced International Studies, where he was an associate professor of Russian and Eurasian studies from 1984 to 1986, he shifted attention to the postwar period and placed his work squarely in international relations theory. This led to a study of Soviet policy in Europe in the 1970s and 1980s, a biography of mid-20th-century British historian E. H. Carr, a history of the realist school of Western thought in the field of international relations since Machiavelli and a study of the Nixon administration's role in the fall of the Allende government in Chile. His work is distinguished by skepticism toward all orthodoxies and a determination to weigh scholarly judgments against archival evidence. Now a professor at Cambridge University, he remains a leading proponent of the marriage of historical scholarship and international relations theory, and is considered by many to be the best British historian working on Soviet external relations today.

David L. Helfet
New York, New York

Dr. Helfet began his career in the late 1970s, as an assistant resident and chief resident in the Department of General Surgery and Orthopedic Surgery at the Johns Hopkins School of Medicine. Since then, he has fulfilled the extraordinary promise he showed while a resident, distinguishing himself as an astute and innovative surgeon, researcher and educator. Now professor of orthopedic surgery at Cornell University's Weill Medical College, Dr. Helfet is a noted trauma surgeon and has developed groundbreaking techniques to help manage the most difficult and challenging fractures. In addition, he has been instrumental in developing novel approaches to saving the limbs of critically injured patients, and has generously shared these techniques with other surgeons locally, nationally and even internationally. Dr. Helfet also has made important contributions to many basic science studies ranging from the biomedical aspects of fracture fixation to the molecular biology of bone formation.

Andrew Hurrell
Oxford, United Kingdom

In the 20 years since holding his initial academic post at the Bologna Center of Johns Hopkins' School of Advanced International Studies, Dr. Hurrell has become one of the leading scholars in the field of international relations at Oxford University and one of the best-known theorists of international politics in the English-speaking world. He is widely recognized for his work in both theory of international relations and the politics of regionalism, especially in the Americas, with a focus on Brazil. In international relations theory, he is best-known as a leading contemporary theorist in the oEnglish school,oe an approach also known as the "international society" perspective, pioneered by the late Hedley Bull, also of Oxford. Dr. Hurrell's work on the Americas focuses especially on relations between the United States and Brazil in the context of the dominant role played by the United States. His major book, On Global Order: Power, Values and the Constitution of International Society, won the annual best book award of the International Studies Association in 2008.

Scott H. Kaufmann
Rochester, Minnesota

Dr. Kaufmann has spent his career researching how to fight cancer by exploiting a mechanism by which cells program themselves to die. Now an internationally recognized expert in these cell systems and how they can be used in novel therapeutic regimens to program cancer cells to "commit suicide," Dr. Kaufmann is the chairman of the Division of Oncology Research in the Mayo Clinic's Department of Oncology, as well as a professor in the departments of Medicine and of Molecular Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics at the Mayo Medical School and the Mayo Foundation for Research and Education. In addition to earning his MD and PhD at the Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine in 1981, Dr. Kaufmann did his residency and fellowship at Johns Hopkins, and served as an associate professor of oncology here in 1994.

Thomas J. Kelly Jr.
New York, New York

Dr. Kelly has made significant contributions to cancer research, specifically through his study of the mechanism and regulation of eukaryotic DNA replication. His seminal contributions to this field include the development of the first in vitro DNA replication systems, which allowed him to identify key protein components and to define their contribution to initiation and control. During his 30-year career at the Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, where he served as director of the Department of Molecular Biology and Genetics and director of the Institute for Basic Biomedical Sciences, he built what many consider to be the best basic science department in the country, home to three Nobel laureates: one he replaced as chair (Daniel Nathans), one he trained with (Hamilton O. Smith) and one he recruited (Carol Greider). As director of the Sloan-Kettering Institute since 2002, he has had an even broader impact, creating and reinvigorating leading programs in cancer biology, immunology, molecular biology and pharmacology at one of the leading research centers in the United States.

Allan I. Levey
Atlanta, Georgia

Dr. Levey's scholarship has literally changed the field of Alzheimer's disease, in the sense that his work has helped to establish new pathways for its treatment. He has led efforts to better understand the critical neurotransmitter acetylcholine, which is deficient in patients with the disease. As a professor of neurology at Emory University, he has led major research to define the subtypes of muscarinic acetylcholine receptors. These receptors are a primary target for current drug therapies, and in recent work, he and his group have shown that they may offer a novel approach for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease. The body of Dr. Levey's work within Alzheimer's disease and other neurodegenerative diseases is broad and innovative, including imaging studies, clinical trials, proteomic profiling and genetic studies. Dr. Levey served as chief resident in the Department of Neurology at Johns Hopkins in the late 1980s.

Jacob Rajfer
Los Angeles, California

Dr. Rajfer exemplifies what clinicians can accomplish by learning from patients at their bedside and finding the answers at the bench. He has been a lifelong clinician and clinical investigator interested in disorders of male sexual and reproductive function. After hearing a lecture by Dr. Louis Ignarro, Dr. Rajfer deduced that nitric oxide was most likely the neurotransmitter responsible for penile erection. In classical experiments, first using tissue harvested from animals and then from humans, Drs. Ignarro and Rajfer were able to confirm for the first time that nitric oxide was indeed the neurotransmitter responsible for erectile function in men. Basing its work on this observation, Pfizer developed the drug commonly known as Viagra, which made a major impact on the treatment of this disorder. At Johns Hopkins, Dr. Rajfer fostered his interest in the application of basic science to clinical problems in urology as a resident and chief resident in the James Buchanan Brady Urological Institute. Today, he is the chief of urology in the Department of Surgery at the Harbor-UCLA Medical Center.

John A. Rock
Miami, Florida

Dr. Rock is one of the nation's foremost reproductive endocrinologists. Following his fellowship in the Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics at Johns Hopkins, he established the in vitro fertilization program at Hopkins in 1984, leading to Maryland's first birth through this landmark procedure. In 1991, Dr. Rock became director of the Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics at Union Memorial Hospital. He was ultimately recruited to chair the Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics at Emory University. In 2002, Dr. Rock became chancellor and CEO of the Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center, and in 2007, he was named senior vice president for medical affairs and dean of the newly established Medical College of Florida International University. A talented gynecologic surgeon, inspirational mentor and able administrator, Dr. Rock has distinguished himself as an influential figure in women's health and medical education, publishing 200 peer-reviewed articles, numerous chapters and textbooks. He has edited the four most recent editions of TeLinde's Operative Gynecology.

Gang Xiao
Providence, Rhode Island

Dr. Xiao, director of Brown University's Center for NanoSciences and Soft Materials, has over the course of his career made extraordinary contributions to condensed matter physics, conducting cutting-edge research in a broad range of areas ranging from spintronics, an emerging field that harnesses the electron's spin to create new electronic devices, to superconductivity, to magnetic tunnel junctions. Dr. Xiao has developed a method to visualize the flow of electrical current through very small magnetic field sensors, an approach that is the technical basis of a start-up company, Micro Magnetics, of which he is founder and chief technology officer. A postdoctoral fellow in the Henry A. Rowland Department of Physics and Astronomy from 1988 to 1989, Dr. Xiao has since published more than 190 scientific papers with 7,000 SCI citations, making him among the most highly cited physicists worldwide.

Michael J. Zinner
Boston, Massachusetts

Dr. Zinner is an accomplished leader in surgery who is known for his work in surgical education, training and safety. He was one of the first to organize a center for surgical outcomes and has done so on a national level. Dr. Zinner's current clinical focus centers on diseases of the gastrointestinal tract, specifically of the colon and rectum. Outside of his clinical sphere, Dr. Zinner is involved at the local, regional and national levels on issues relating to the impact of changes in the health care delivery system on the practices of surgery and the viability of academic medical centers. He earned his bachelor's degree in electrical engineering from Johns Hopkins in 1967, and he served as chief resident in the Department of Surgery at Johns Hopkins in the late 1970s. Today, Dr. Zinner is surgeon-in-chief at Brigham and Women's Hospital, a nonprofit teaching affiliate of Harvard Medical School, and is also clinical director of the Dana Farber/Brigham and Women's Cancer Center.

2009

Kenneth C. Anderson
Boston

Kenneth Anderson, a 1977 graduate of the School of Medicine and an intern, fellow and resident in the Department of Internal Medicine from 1977 to 1980, has developed one of the world's most successful translational research programs devoted to multiple myeloma. As the Kraft Family Professor of Medicine at Harvard Medical School, chief of the Division of Hematologic Neoplasia and director of the Jerome Lipper Multiple Myeloma Center at Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, he has conducted research studies that have resulted in important new therapies for the treatment of this cancer of the plasma cell. Specifically, Anderson's research group played a major role in the development of bortezomib, possibly the most effective drug against this serious disease. Also vice chair of the Program in Transfusion Medicine at Harvard Medical School, Anderson has made significant contributions to the development of cellular therapies and minimization of the immunologic complications of blood transfusion. In 2005, he received the Robert A. Kyle Lifetime Achievement Award from the International Myeloma Foundation.
Nominators: William Nelson, the Marion I. Knott Professor and Director of the Department of Oncology, and Richard J. Jones, professor and director of the Hematologic Malignancies Program, Department of Oncology, School of Medicine

Karen D. Davis
Toronto, Ontario, Canada

Karen Davis published 14 papers based on her three-year postdoctoral fellowship research, from 1988 to 1991, in the Pain Research Laboratory at Johns Hopkins. She has gone on to an exemplary career at the University of Toronto, where she now serves as head of the Division of Brain, Imaging and Behavior-Systems Neuroscience and associate director of the Institute of Medical Science. She also holds the Canada Research Chair in Brain and Behavior. Davis' laboratory has developed innovative brain-imaging approaches, culminating in the first functional MRI images of brain networks underlying the human pain experience and the first images of the impact of deep brain stimulation for Parkinsonian tremor. Her research has increased the understanding of pain, attention and plasticity associated with neurological and psychiatric disease. Davis has also created educational programs and published the book New Techniques for Examining the Brain.
Nominator: James N. Campbell, professor of neurosurgery, Department of Neurology and Neurosurgery, School of Medicine

Merrill J. Egorin
Pittsburgh

An intern and resident from 1973 to 1975 who also received his undergraduate and medical degrees from Johns Hopkins, Merrill Egorin worked under Victor McKusick and completed a clinical fellowship at the Baltimore Cancer Research Center. Since 1998, he has been a professor of medicine and of pharmacology at the University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine. Now co-director of the Molecular Therapeutics/Drug Discovery Program at the University of Pittsburgh Cancer Institute, Egorin has played a central role in defining the pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic relationships of a large number of chemotherapeutic agents currently used to treat cancer. For example, his work has led to a paradigm shift in the dosing of the cancer drug carboplatin. In addition, he has pioneered the current standards regarding evaluation of a specific group of chemotherapy drugs in special populations, such as patients with organ dysfunction and the elderly.
Nominator: David S. Cooper, professor of endocrinology, Department of Medicine, School of Medicine

Martha S. Linet
Bethesda, Md.

Considered a leading scientific expert in the epidemiology of leukemia, Martha Linet is chief of the Radiation Epidemiology Branch in the Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics at the National Cancer Institute. She has directed landmark studies of childhood leukemia that have focused on low- frequency magnetic fields and radiation exposure outcomes in the U.S. Radiologic Technologists Cohort. Linet has also led collaborative international studies representing the United States with the International Agency for Research on Cancer and liaison activities for the National Cancer Institute to the Environmental Protection Agency and the Food and Drug Administration. In addition, she was a key scientific member of the advisory committee that investigated cancer risks following the Chernobyl accident. She has contributed substantially to the scientific literature, including a text on the epidemiology of leukemia. At Johns Hopkins, Linet was a postdoctoral fellow in the Department of Epidemiology from 1977 to 1979.
Nominator: David D. Celentano, professor and interim chair, Department of Epidemiology, Bloomberg School of Public Health

Victor J. Marder
Los Angeles

Victor Marder received undergraduate, master's and medical degrees from Johns Hopkins and was an intern in the Department of Medicine from 1959 to 1960. He has since led a distinguished academic career with leadership positions at Temple University, the University of Rochester and most recently UCLA, where he is a clinical professor of medicine, pediatrics and neurology in the David Geffen School of Medicine and director of the Vascular Medicine Service at the Los Angeles Orthopedic Hospital. Marder's research, both basic and translational, has focused on blood coagulation. He conducted pioneering studies on the interaction of fibrinogen with the fibrinolytic agent plasmin, and his translational studies led to a new therapy for use in venous thromboembolic disease, heart attack and stroke. Marder's numerous recognitions for his scientific accomplishments include a distinguished career award from the International Society of Hemostasis and Thrombosis.
Nominator: Jerry L. Spivak, professor of medicine and oncology, School of Medicine

Joel Moss
Bethesda, Md.

Currently deputy chief of the Translational Medicine Branch of the National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute at the National Institutes of Health, Joel Moss was an intern and resident in the Johns Hopkins Department of Medicine from 1972 to 1974. Since then, he has consistently engaged in pioneering research and is now an acknowledged leader in the field of biochemistry. His initial studies focused on cholera toxin, the protein responsible for fluid and electrolyte losses characteristic of cholera, and he added to the understanding of how that protein operates. More recently, Moss has been involved in research on deadly lung diseases, including a rare disorder known by the acronym LAM. He holds several patents and has published a number of texts, one of which is a volume that describes the structure and function of bacterial toxins. In recognition of his accomplishments, Moss has received the Passano Foundation Young Investigator Award, the AFCR Young Investigator Award and the LAM Foundation Award.
Nominator: M. Daniel Lane, Distinguished Service Professor, Department of Biological Chemistry, School of Medicine

Bernd Nowack
St. Gallen, Switzerland

Bernd Nowack is internationally recognized for his imaginative contributions toward understanding the interactions of natural and synthetic chemicals with particulate matter. His work with detergent builders and other synthetic chelating agents has aided European Union reappraisals of their safety. While at the Institute of Terrestrial Ecosystems, he pioneered methods for documenting chemical assimilation by plant roots. Presently, Nowack leads the Materials, Products and the Environment Group at the Swiss Institute for Materials Science and Technology. There he is developing innovative approaches toward predicting transformations and the ultimate impact of engineered nanoparticles in environmental media. He has been a key organizer of influential international conferences and workshops on environmental chemistry, nanoparticle science and technology, and biogeochemistry. At Johns Hopkins, Nowack was a postdoctoral fellow in the Department of Geography and Environmental Engineering from 1997 to 1998.
Nominator: Alan T. Stone, professor, Department of Geography and Environmental Engineering, Whiting School of Engineering

Thomas A. Pearson
Rochester, N.Y.

Thomas Pearson received his medical degree, master's degree in public health and doctoral degree in cardiovascular epidemiology from Johns Hopkins, where he also completed residencies in preventive medicine and internal medicine and a fellowship in cardiology. Today, he is widely recognized as a leader in public health research and, specifically, in the epidemiology and prevention of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. Pearson is the Albert D. Kaiser Professor in the Department of Community and Preventive Medicine and senior associate dean for clinical research at the University of Rochester. With a long-standing interest in international trends in cardiovascular disease and stroke, Pearson was one of the first to identify the spread of coronary diseases in developing countries. His research at the patient, health care system, community and public policy levels has helped develop guidelines in preventive cardiovascular disease and has contributed significantly to the incorporation of new knowledge and approaches to the education of the public and various health care groups.
Nominator: Leon Gordis, professor, Department of Epidemiology, Bloomberg School of Public Health

Jennifer A. Pietenpol
Nashville, Tenn.

A fellow in the Oncology Center at Johns Hopkins from 1991 to 1994, Jennifer Pietenpol is now the B.F. Boyd Jr. Professor of Molecular Oncology and professor of biochemistry, cancer biology and otolaryngology at the Vanderbilt University School of Medicine. She has made major contributions to our understanding of the p53 signaling network. The p53 gene is altered in numerous forms of cancer- -including those of the breast, colon, lung, brain, pancreas and stomach — and is the most frequently altered cancer gene yet identified. Pietenpol has helped discover how p53 and related genes work to make cells grow abnormally and, in particular, how they divide so quickly and die so slowly. Her research seeks not only to define these mechanisms but also to use this information to advance patient care. Pietenpol plays a major role in charting the directions of cancer research in the United States as director of the Vanderbilt-Ingram Cancer Center and as a presidentially appointed member of the national Cancer Advisory Board.
Nominators: Nancy Davidson, Breast Cancer Research Professor in Oncology, and Bert Vogelstein, Clayton Professor of Oncology and Pathology, School of Medicine

James Piscatori
Canberra, Australia

James Piscatori is a leading interpreter of international political Islam of the fundamentalist variety. His work explores the transnationalism of Islam, moving attention away from its place within individual societies and highlighting the ties between Muslim history, sociology and politics. Originally working in Islam in international law, Piscatori developed interests in Islamic fundamentalism during his stint as an associate professor at the Johns Hopkins Nitze School of Advanced International Studies from 1986 to 1989, well before the events of Sept. 11, 2001, turned the world's attention to the phenomenon. Piscatori was a fellow in the Center for Islamic Studies at Oxford University before assuming his current position as deputy director of the Centre for Arab and Islamic Studies at the Australian National University.
Nominator: I. William Zartman, professor emeritus and director, Conflict Management Program, SAIS

Ralph E. Pudritz
Hamilton, Ontario, Canada

As a postdoctoral fellow working with Colin Norman in the Center for Astrophysical Sciences at Johns Hopkins from 1984 to 1986, Ralph Pudritz wrote papers on outflows from protostars that are still widely cited classics. His career has continued on a brilliant path. He is a world-renowned expert on star formation, astrophysical jets and outflow, and the properties of molecular clouds. He chaired the 2000 Canadian Decadal Survey for Astronomy, the most comprehensive survey ever undertaken in Canadian astrophysics. Its recommendations ultimately made Canada an active partner for new observatories, such as the Atacama Large Millimeter Array, the James Webb Space Telescope and the Thirty Meter Telescope. In 2004, Pudritz founded the Origins Institute at McMaster University, which he directs today. The institute focuses on research in transdisciplinary fundamental science, and it is now a significant research center for astrobiology. With numerous major papers and books to his credit, Pudritz gives presentations frequently on star and planet formation and, more recently, astrobiology.
Nominator: Colin A. Norman, professor, Center for Astrophysical Sciences, Krieger School of Arts and Sciences

Anne L. Taylor
New York

Anne Taylor is an established researcher whose extensive body of work has focused on cardiovascular diseases in minorities and women. She has also been instrumental in the transfer of knowledge about cardiovascular disease prevention from the realm of research to the community. From 2001 to 2005, Taylor chaired the steering committee for the African-American Heart Failure Trial, which was a landmark research effort that tested the effectiveness of a heart failure medication in a specific ethnic population. The results of the study have contributed significantly to human health and to the opportunity to understand further the influence of ethnicity on disease and life-saving achievement strategies. A research fellow in the Johns Hopkins Department of Cardiology from 1981 to 1982, Taylor is the vice dean for academic affairs and professor of medicine in cardiology at the Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons. She has been recognized with many awards and honors and is further distinguished because of her demonstrated administrative ability in a variety of settings.
Nominator: Myron L. Weisfeldt, the William Osler Professor of Medicine and chairman, Department of Medicine, School of Medicine

Donald L. Trump
Buffalo, N.Y.

A 1970 graduate of the Johns Hopkins School of Medicine, Donald Trump completed an internship and residency training in medicine and a fellowship in oncology at The Johns Hopkins Hospital from 1970 to 1974, served as chief resident in internal medicine from 1974 to 1975 and was a member of the cancer center faculty from 1977 to 1981. Trump's distinguished academic career includes leadership roles at several premier cancer centers as well as his current position as president and CEO of the Roswell Park Cancer Institute in Buffalo, N.Y. Trump is a national and international authority in the treatment of prostate cancer and other genitourinary cancers. In particular, he has made major contributions to the field of new anticancer drug development and has added significantly to our understanding of the role of vitamin D in the pathogenesis and treatment of cancer.
Nominators: William Nelson, the Marion I. Knott Professor and Director of the Department of Oncology, and Ross C. Donehower, the Virginia and D.K. Ludwig Professor in Clinical Investigation of Cancer, Department of Oncology, School of Medicine

Lai-Xi Wang
Baltimore

Lai-Xi Wang is an associate professor in the Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology in the Institute of Virology at the University of Maryland School of Medicine. His research has provided important new insights for HIV vaccine design and propelled him to the forefront of the anti-HIV field. Specifically, he has explored carbohydrate antigens as a target for an HIV vaccine by synthesizing novel oligosaccharides (saccharide polymers) to mimic the antigens on the viral envelope. Wang has also developed a highly efficient method for making glycoproteins that carry defined oligosaccharides, a process that opens a new avenue for rapid access to various glycoproteins that are essential for probing the structure and function of this class of important biological molecules. In recognition of his achievements, Wang received the 2004 Young Investigator Award in Carbohydrate Chemistry from the American Chemical Society. Wang was a postdoctoral fellow at Johns Hopkins in the Department of Biology from 1993 to 1997.
Nominator: Yuan C. Lee, professor, Department of Biology, Krieger School of Arts and Sciences

Arnold-Peter C. Weiss
Providence, R.I.

Arnold-Peter Weiss received his undergraduate and medical degrees from Johns Hopkins and was an intern and resident in the departments of General Surgery and Orthopaedic Surgery from 1985 to 1990. Today, he is known throughout the world as an accomplished hand surgeon, excellent educator and ingenious innovator. Weiss specializes in hand and wrist reconstruction with a special interest in finger- and wrist-joint replacement surgery. He holds eight patents for novel surgery techniques and equipment, including a new carpal tunnel release procedure and joint replacement implants. Weiss is associate dean of medicine and dean of admissions at Brown University's Warren Alpert Medical School. He has been honored with the America's Top Doctors, Best Doctors in America and America's Top Surgeons awards. He has also been a distinguished leader in many orthopedic organizations, such as the American Society for Surgery of the Hand and the American Board of Orthopaedic Surgery. He is editor of the two-volume text Hand Surgery.
Nominator: Frank J. Frassica, the Robert A. Robinson Professor and chair, Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, School of Medicine

2008

Mary D. Barkley
Cleveland

A visiting professor in the Krieger School's Department of Biology in 1980-81, Mary Barkley is now a recognized leader in biophysical chemistry. As the M. Roger Clapp University Professor of Arts and Sciences at Case Western Reserve University, she investigates the structure and dynamics of biological macromolecules, believing that a better understanding of protein function will lead to improved drug therapies. In particular, her research on the flexibility of DNA has led to computation studies and new physical measurements. Barkley's current work on the AIDS and hepatitis C viruses is having a major impact in the field. She has actively participated in the Biophysical Society and has been instrumental in identifying and promoting young scientists and increasing the scientific awareness of government representatives. She was nominated by Ludwig Brand, professor, Department of Biology, Krieger School of Arts and Sciences.

Arthur L. Beaudet
Houston

Now considered a pioneer in the applications of molecular genetics to human disease, Arthur Beaudet was an intern and resident in the School of Medicine's Department of Pediatrics from 1967 to 1969. From there, he has proceeded to develop and lead one of the most successful human genetics programs in the world. His accomplishments include key discoveries in several genetic disorders, including Angelman syndrome, Prader-Willi syndrome and autism. Beaudet's many honors include the March of Dimes/Col. Harland Sanders Award for lifetime achievement in genetic sciences. He is currently the Henry and Emma Meyer Professor and chair of the Department of Human and Molecular Genetics at the Baylor College of Medicine. He was nominated by Aravinda Chakravarti, professor of medicine, pediatrics, and molecular biology and genetics, and director of the Center for Complex Disease Genomics, School of Medicine.

Lisa A. Carey
Chapel Hill, N.C.

Lisa Carey is an associate professor of medicine and director of the multidisciplinary University of North Carolina Breast Cancer Center. She has worked closely with colleague Charles Perou to harness the power of microarray technology for recognizing and tailoring treatment for molecular subtypes of breast cancer. Carey's study was described in a 2006 Journal of the American Medical Association article, which is one of the highest impact articles on breast cancer and health disparities published to date. She is the principal investigator of a large-scale multi-institutional trial to test new treatments for a basal subtype of breast cancer. From 1990 to 1997, she was a resident in the School of Medicine's Department of Internal Medicine and a fellow in Oncology. She was nominated by Saraswati Sukumar, the Barbara B. Rubenstein Professor of Oncology and co-director of the Breast Cancer Program, Sidney Kimmel Comprehensive Cancer Center, School of Medicine.

David C. Kaslow
North Wales, Pa.

A fellow in the School of Medicine's Division of Pediatric Genetics from 1984 to 1986, David Kaslow is currently vice president in the Division of Infectious Diseases and Vaccines at Merck Research Laboratories. Driven by his interest in the impact of malaria on global health, Kaslow founded the Malaria Vaccine Development Unit at the National Institutes of Health. He has applied tools originally created for gene therapy to vaccine development. Major contributions include the molecular cloning and characterization of proteins involved in the sexual development of the malaria parasite and development of several malarial vaccines. Kaslow also directed the research and product development that led to clinical trials for vaccines against anthrax, West Nile virus, influenza, HIV and cancer. He was nominated by Barbara A. Migeon, professor of pediatrics/general medicine, McKusick-Nathans Institute of Genetic Medicine, School of Medicine.

Muin J. Khoury
Atlanta

Trained in both medicine and epidemiology, Muin Khoury was an assistant professor in the School of Public Health's Department of Epidemiology in 1986. During a distinguished career, Khoury has championed the field of public health genetics and the application of genomics to public health issues. Among the early genetic epidemiologists, he authored one of the first comprehensive textbooks on the subject, Fundamentals of Genetic Epidemiology. Beyond his many substantive research contributions, Khoury has led initiatives on genetics at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, serving since 1999 as the founding director of CDC's National Office of Public Health Genomics. He has used his role as a platform to advance the field of public health genetics within CDC and beyond. His accomplishments in this regard include the development of a key series of reviews on the genetics of human disease, the organization of numerous conferences to advance the field and a steady stream of scholarship on the topic, including the book Human Genome Epidemiology. He was nominated by Jonathan M. Samet, professor and chair, Department of Epidemiology, Bloomberg School of Public Health.

Andrzej Kowalczyk
Torun, Poland

Andrzej Kowalczyk is a major contributor in medical physics whose career was influenced by collaboration with physicians at the Johns Hopkins Medical Institutions. Trained in photophysics, Kowalczyk was a postdoctoral fellow in the Krieger School's Department of Biology in 1980-81. While at Johns Hopkins, he collaborated with colleagues in the School of Medicine to use fluorescence spectroscopy to study respiratory distress syndrome. This experience completely changed the direction of his research efforts. After returning to his native Poland, Kowalczyk became professor of physics at the Nicholas Copernicus University. He subsequently founded and now directs the medical physics group at the university's Institute of Physics. Kowalczyk has developed new optical methods for medical diagnosis, including techniques that use optical coherence tomography in ophthalmology. He was nominated by Ludwig Brand, professor, Department of Biology, Krieger School of Arts and Sciences.

Elizabeth J. Perlman
Chicago

Pathologist in chief and head of the Department of Pathology at Children's Memorial Hospital in Chicago, Elizabeth Perlman is known internationally for her expertise in pediatric kidney tumors. Her genetic analyses of pediatric germ cell tumors have identified how they differ from adult tumors and have found distinct genetic subgroups within the pediatric primary germ cell tumors originating in the chest. Her ongoing research on pediatric renal tumors has shown that using molecular analyses can result in increasingly precise classification that will affect treatment decisions and outcomes. In 1999, the Society of Pediatric Pathology awarded Perlman its Harry B. Neustein Memorial Award in recognition of her research. Perlman received her postgraduate training in pathology and laboratory medicine from 1984 to 1990 at Johns Hopkins' School of Medicine. She was nominated by Constance A. Griffin, associate professor, Department of Pathology, and interim director, Division of Molecular Pathology, School of Medicine.

Sally Perreault Darney
Research Triangle Park, N.C.

After completing a postdoctoral fellowship in 1984 in the Division of Reproductive Biology, Department of Population Dynamics, in the School of Public Health, Sally Perreault Darney joined the Environmental Protection Agency's Office of Research and Development. There she was charged with three tasks: to develop a research program to address modes of action of reproductive toxicants on sperm, eggs and fertility; to help craft EPA's Reproductive and Developmental Risk Assessment Guidelines; and to help revise multigenerational test guidelines. Since that time, she has completed those tasks and more, holding leadership positions of increasing responsibility at the agency, including chief of the Gamete and Early Embryo Biology Branch, director of the Reproductive Toxicology Branch and her current role as acting national program director for human health. Perreault Darney's research program has helped set both national and international research agendas and has had a significant impact on reproductive test guidelines and risk assessment paradigms, with a recent focus on emerging issues that include environmental endocrine disruptors, assessment of complex exposures and extrapolation of data from rodent to human. She was nominated by Barry R. Zirkin, professor and director, Division of Reproductive Biology, Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Bloomberg School of Public Health.

Kornelia Polyak
Boston

A research associate in the Kimmel Cancer Center and Howard Hughes Medical Institute from 1995 to 1998, Kornelia Polyak is presently an associate professor of medicine at the Dana-Farber Cancer Institute of the Harvard Medical School. She is at the forefront of studies using genomic approaches to study human breast cancer, with particular emphasis on early-stage disease. She has been a pioneer in developing and applying several new methods to survey the human breast cancer genome, and her lab has identified specific oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes that play a role in breast cancer progression. The recipient of numerous awards, Polyak is especially well-known for her contributions in the interplay between genetic and epigenetic alterations in the tumor and its microenvironment. She was nominated by Nancy E. Davidson, professor of oncology, Breast Cancer Research Chair in Oncology and director of the Breast Cancer Program, Sidney Kimmel Comprehensive Cancer Center, School of Medicine.

Stephen J. Qualman
Columbus, Ohio

With a long-standing interest in pediatric tumors, Stephen Qualman is a national authority on the pathology of childhood cancer. His singular contribution to medical research has been the establishment in 1991 of the Biopathology Center of the Cooperative Human Tissue Network. From a small beginning, Qualman's subsequent research convinced the National Cancer Institute of the value of providing pediatric tumor specimens to medical researchers. He has proceeded to develop the premier tumor repository in the country, expanding the center to include the Children's Cancer Group Biopathology Center, the Childhood Survivor Study Pathology Center and, since 2000, seven additional tumor banks. On average, the Biopathology Center annually distributes 15,000 biospecimens to approximately 200 researchers. At Johns Hopkins, Qualman was an intern and resident in the School of Medicine's Department of Pathology from 1979 to 1983. Today, he holds the Richard M. and M. Elizabeth Ross Endowed Chair in Pediatric Research and is vice chair of the Pediatric Pathology Branch at the Columbus Children's Research Center. He was nominated by Michael J. Borowitz, professor of pathology and oncology and deputy director, Department of Pathology, School of Medicine.

John Joseph Ricotta
Stony Brook, N.Y.

John Ricotta is an internationally and nationally known vascular surgeon who received his postdoctoral medical training in the School of Medicine's Department of Surgery from 1973 to 1980. A true scholar, he is considered a world authority on the treatment of combined carotid and coronary disease and is a leader in the area of carotid stent trials. In his career thus far, Ricotta has trained 24 residents in his research lab as well as 15 vascular surgery fellows. He has been invited as a visiting professor to numerous institutions around the country and has served as president of the Eastern Vascular Society, the Society for Clinical Vascular Surgery and the Western New York Vascular Society. A member of the American Board of Surgery, Ricotta is currently professor and chair of the Department of Surgery and program director of General Surgery at the School of Medicine and Biomedical Sciences at the State University of New York at Stony Brook. He was nominated by Julie A. Freischlag, the William Steward Halsted Professor in Surgery and chair of the Department of Surgery, School of Medicine.

Robert A. Rizza
Rochester, Minn.

Since completing his internship and residency in the School of Medicine's Department of Medicine in 1976, Robert Rizza has focused his research efforts on investigating glucose metabolism in diabetic and nondiabetic individuals. His work has resulted in groundbreaking scientific contributions, including an increased understanding of how specific hormones, substrates, insulin delivery routes and medical conditions regulate insulin action and glucose metabolism. Rizza has defined the mechanisms the human body uses to defend against and recover from hypoglycemia. He has developed practical approaches and tested the effectiveness of "intensive insulin therapy," now considered by many to be the standard of care for type 1 diabetes, and has also provided new insights into the mechanisms of existing and novel therapies for type 2 diabetes mellitus. His goal is to produce rational, effective methods for preventing and treating diabetes mellitus and its associated complications. Rizza is the Earl and Annette R. McDonough Professor of Medicine and executive dean and director of research at the Mayo Clinic College of Medicine. He was nominated by Paul W. Ladenson, the John Eager Howard Professor of Medicine and director of the Division of Endocrinology and Metabolism, School of Medicine.

Shlomo Shinnar
Bronx, N.Y.

After earning a doctorate in neurophysiology, Shlomo Shinnar was an intern, resident and fellow in the Department of Pediatrics and a resident and fellow in the Department of Neurology, both in the School of Medicine. He left Johns Hopkins in 1983 to embark on what would become a distinguished career in epilepsy research. Currently he is a professor of pediatrics, epidemiology and population health and the Hyman Climenko Professor of Neuroscience Research at the Comprehensive Epilepsy Management Center at the Montefiore Medical Center of the Albert Einstein College of Medicine. Shinnar's contributions to the body of knowledge of febrile seizures and pediatric epilepsy have changed our understanding and management of these conditions and set the standard for epidemiologic research in the field. A prolific author and frequent lecturer, he is a leader in the field of pediatric epilepsy, and at the Child Neurology Society and the Epilepsy Branch of the National Institutes of Health. The American Epilepsy Society has honored his substantial work with its Research Recognition Award. He was nominated by John M. Freeman, Lederer Professor of Neurology and Pediatrics, School of Medicine.

Peter S. Ungar
Fayetteville, Ark.

A young scholar who was a postdoctoral fellow in the School of Medicine's Department of Cell Biology and Anatomy in 1992-93, Peter Ungar has already established himself as one of the top physical anthropologists in the world. Now a professor of anthropology at the University of Arkansas, he has done paleontological fieldwork on virtually every continent. He has also studied primate behavior and ecology in Central and South America and Indonesia. Ungar's research efforts are focused on an improved understanding of the behavior of our earliest ancestors. To make this possible, he has pushed data analyses to new levels, using techniques such as GIS analysis to plot fossil sites in 3-D and creating new technologies, including the combination of scanning confocal microscopy and fractal analysis, to gain critical insights into the origins and evolution of human diet. In the process, Ungar has tested the assumptions underlying present-day fossil interpretations and has revolutionized our understanding of the mechanisms of human evolution. He was nominated by Mark Teaford, professor, Center for Functional Anatomy and Evolution, School of Medicine.

Teresa Lyn Wright
Pleasanton, Calif.

A noted expert on liver disease and viral hepatitis, Teresa Wright is chief medical officer and vice president of Roche Molecular Systems. As professor of medicine at the University of California, San Francisco and chief of the Gastroenterology Section at the San Francisco Veterans Administration Center, Wright was one of the first physicians to alert the medical community to the problem of hepatitis C infection among liver transplant patients and individuals with HIV. In recognition of her considerable achievements, she was elected to the Association of American Physicians in 2002. In that same year, Prince Andrew made her an officer in the Order of the British Empire for "her brilliant research in pioneering therapies that have saved hundreds of lives." In 2005, she was president of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases. Wright was an intern and resident in the School of Medicine's Department of Medicine from 1979 to 1982. She was nominated by Susan M. MacDonald, professor and associate chair, Department of Medicine, School of Medicine.

2007

Kenneth H. Brown
Davis, Calif.

Kenneth Brown has spent his career investigating the causes, treatment, prevention and complications of childhood malnutrition in low-income countries, with particular emphasis on the appropriate feeding of infants and young children. Now director of the Program in International and Community Nutrition at the University of California, Davis, Brown is considered an international expert in the dietary management of diarrheal diseases and the role of zinc and other micronutrients in the prevention and treatment of infection. He came to Johns Hopkins — and what is now the Bloomberg School of Public Health — in 1975 and spent three years as a research associate and clinical fellow in Bangladesh, where his lifelong interest in childhood nutrition was born. He continued his work as a faculty member in the Division of Human Nutrition at Johns Hopkins. Brown is the recipient of the International Award for Modern Nutrition, the Kellogg International Nutrition Research Prize and the E.V. McCollum Award of the American Society of Clinical Nutrition. He was nominated by R. Bradley Sack, professor, Department of International Health, Bloomberg School of Public Health.

Ralph Anthony DeFronzo
San Antonio

During his endocrinology fellowship in the Department of Medicine from 1971 to 1973 under Reubin Andres, Ralph DeFronzo published with Andres what turned out to be the classic paper describing the glucose clamp, a technique that remains the gold standard for measuring insulin sensitivity. Building on this early work, DeFronzo has become without question one of the most prolific and influential diabetes clinical researchers of his generation. He is currently professor of medicine and chief of the Diabetes Division at the University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio and deputy director of the Texas Diabetes Institute. He was nominated by Christopher D. Saudek, Hugh P. McCormick Family Professor of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Department of Medicine, School of Medicine.

Raymond Nelson DuBois Jr.
Nashville, Tenn.

Raymond DuBois is a major contributor to our knowledge of the genetic and molecular factors leading to colon cancer, including our understanding of how nonsteroid anti-inflammatory drugs offer us protection from developing the disease. He became interested in this issue during his 1985 fellowship in gastroenterology in the Department of Medicine under Thomas R. Hendrix and in the Department of Molecular Biology and Genetic Medicine under Daniel Nathans. DuBois' research has been applied to the study of other malignancies involving the esophagus, intestine, uterus, ovary and prostate. Currently the B.F. Byrd Jr. Professor of Molecular Oncology and director of the Vanderbilt-Ingram Cancer Center at Vanderbilt University Medical Center, he will start a new role in September as provost and executive vice president for academic affairs at the University of Texas M.D. Anderson Cancer Center. DuBois is also president-elect of the American Association for Cancer Research. He was nominated by Thomas R. Hendrix, professor emeritus of gastroenterology, Department of Medicine, School of Medicine.

Eric R. Fearon
Ann Arbor, Mich.

Eric Fearon is widely known for his work in human cancer genetics, particularly investigations of gene defects that underlie the development and progression of colon tumors. Currently, he is the Emanuel N. Maisel Professor of Oncology and professor of internal medicine, human genetics and pathology at the University of Michigan School of Medicine; and associate director of basic research at the University of Michigan Comprehensive Cancer Center. After receiving his medical and doctoral degrees from Johns Hopkins under the tutelage of Bert Vogelstein, he conducted postdoctoral research in the laboratory of Chi Van Dang, where he developed a system that is now widely used for the study of protein-protein interactions in living mammalian cells. Fearon served as president of the American Society of Clinical Investigation from 2005 to 2006 and sits on numerous medical journal editorial boards. He was nominated by Chi Van Dang, Johns Hopkins Family Professor for Oncology Research and vice dean for research, School of Medicine.

Bates Gill
Washington, D.C.

Bates Gill is one of the top-three young scholars of contemporary Chinese politics and foreign policy in the Western world. He holds one of the most prestigious endowed chairs in his field, the Freeman Chair at the Center for Strategic and International Studies in Washington, D.C. After a year as the Fei Yiming Professor of Comparative Politics at the SAIS Nanjing Center, he went on to become a prolific scholar of contemporary China, focusing on its arms control and security concerns, its HIV/AIDS policy and its relations with the United States. His just-released book, Rising Star, promises to be a major contribution to our understanding of China's security behavior. He was nominated by David M. Lampton, George and Sadie Hyman Chair in Chinese Studies and director of the China Studies program, SAIS.

James P. Gills, Tarpon Springs, Fla.
A prominent figure in American ophthalmology, James Gills is recognized as one of the nation's most prolific and innovative anterior segment surgeons. His contributions include refining local anesthesia techniques for cataract surgery; refining and advancing small-incision cataract surgery, which is now the standard of care in the United States; and studying novel approaches for the delivery of adjunctive medical therapy in anterior segment surgery. Gills has been a prolific writer, both in peer-reviewed ophthalmic literature and on the intersection of spirituality and medicine. A Johns Hopkins ophthalmology resident of the Wilmer Institute from 1962 to 1965, he is currently the founding director of the St. Luke's Cataract and Laser Institute in Tarpon Springs, Fla. He also has distinguished himself as a medical philanthropist and has established a professorship at Johns Hopkins in the name of Frank Walsh, one of his former professors, and another in his own name. He was nominated by Peter J. McDonnell, William Holland Wilmer Professor of Ophthalmology and director of the Wilmer Eye Institute, School of Medicine.

Yoshi Ichikawa
San Diego

Yoshi Ichikawa is senior director of the Chemistry at Optimer Pharmaceuticals, where he oversees the application of innovative sugar-based medicinal chemistry to improve the properties of drugs. He took on that role after two stints at Johns Hopkins, in 1987 as a postdoctoral fellow under Yuan C. Lee in the Krieger School's Department of Biology and later as an associate professor in the Department of Pharmacology and Molecular Sciences at the School of Medicine. There he created new and extremely powerful inhibitors of glycohydrases, including those required for sugar metabolism and DNA repair and synthesis. The practical application of this discovery can be found in effective therapeutics for bacterial and parasite infections. He was nominated by Yuan C. Lee, professor, Biology Department, Krieger School of Arts and Sciences.

Malcolm Knight
Basel, Switzerland

Malcolm Knight has the distinction, perhaps uniquely, of having served as a top administrative officer in three very different types of financial organizations: a deputy director of the International Monetary Fund, the second-ranking officer of the Bank of Canada, and chief executive officer and general manager of the Bank for International Settlements in Basel, Switzerland. Simultaneously, Knight has been a scholar who has applied economic theory to a lifetime in public service. He has served as an assistant research director for the International Monetary Fund's economic development division and was a member of the editorial board of IMF Papers for 11 years. During that time, he published a number of important articles in leading economic journals, including Econometrica. From 1980 to 1996, he was a teacher and lecturer at the Center for Canadian Studies at SAIS, where he embodied the idea of "theory applied to policy." On two separate occasions, his papers on macroeconomics and exchange rate policy have received major reviews in The Economist, confirming their significance for global economic policy. He was nominated by Charles F. Doran, Andrew W. Mellon Professor of International Studies, SAIS.

Jack Levin
San Francisco

Jack Levin, now a hematologist at the VA Medical Center in San Francisco and professor of laboratory medicine and of medicine at the University of California School of Medicine, joined Johns Hopkins in 1962 as a fellow and spent 17 years on the faculty. He has made many contributions to the field, including demonstrating the association between thrombocytosis and cancer. His most important medical discovery affects everyone who prescribes and receives vaccines and injected fluids: He and his Johns Hopkins colleague Frederick B. Bang discovered that a horseshoe crab blood product, limulus amebocyte lysate, can detect minute amounts of endotoxin. This is now the standard test used to ensure that pharmaceuticals and medical devices are free of bacterial contamination. The work represented an early success in the use of marine biology research to improve human health care. He was nominated by Myron L. Weisfeldt, William Osler Professor of Medicine and director of the Department of Medicine, School of Medicine.

Robert M. Naclerio
Chicago

Robert Naclerio is an internationally respected clinician and scientist in the fields of otolaryngology-head and neck surgery and clinical asthma and immunology. His work has contributed greatly to our understanding of inflammatory diseases of the nose and paranasal sinuses, common disorders that cause substantial discomfort for patients. His thoughtful approach has brought clarity to a confusing array of inflammatory mediators and processes, and his meticulous clinical trials have helped identify the best treatments. Naclerio trained at Johns Hopkins as a surgical resident from 1976 to 1978 and as a fellow in the Clinical Immunology Division from 1980 to 1982. Today, he is chief of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery at the Pritzker School of Medicine of the University of Chicago. He was nominated by Lloyd B. Minor, Andelot Professor of Laryngology and Otology and director of the Department of Otolaryngology-Head & Neck Surgery, School of Medicine.

Peter Schlegel
New York

Peter Schlegel has made numerous contributions to the field of urology since leaving Johns Hopkins in 1989, having completed his residency in general surgery and urology. He is a member of all major urologic societies in North America, and in 2005 he received membership in the prestigious Clinical Society of Genitourinary Surgeons. He serves on the examination committee of the American Board of Urology, is co-editor of Journal of Andrology and section editor of British Journal of Urology, and is a reviewer for all major urologic journals in North America and Europe. Currently, he is senior scientist at the Population Council in New York and chairman of the Department of Urology at the New York Presbyterian Hospital-Weill Medical College of Cornell University. He was nominated by John P. Gearhart, professor, Department of Urology, School of Medicine.

Sangram Sisodia
Chicago

The Thomas Reynolds Sr. Family Professor of Neurosciences and director of the Center for Molecular Neurobiology at the University of Chicago, Sangram Sisodia has spent much of his career trying to untangle the knotty biology of familial Alzheimer's disease. A molecular biologist by training, Sisodia, with his team, has used a combination of genetic, molecular, cellular and neurobiological approaches to clarify the biology of proteins critically implicated in this devastating disease that affects 7 percent of people over the age of 65 and 40 percent of those ages 80 and older. In addition, he has contributed significantly to the development of transgenic mice that exhibit features of the human disease and has trained a new cohort of outstanding young scientists who are active in this field. Before joining the University of Chicago, Sisodia was a professor of pathology and neuroscience at the Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine. He was nominated by Donald L. Price, professor, Department of Pathology, School of Medicine.

George Arthur Spirou
Morgantown, W. Va.

George Spirou is a leader in the field of auditory neuroscience. His postdoctoral fellowship in biomedical engineering at Johns Hopkins in 1990 under Eric D. Young coincided with the formation of the university's Center for Hearing and Balance, a cross-disciplinary effort encouraging collaborations in biomedical engineering and otolaryngology-head and neck surgery. He went on to re-create that model at West Virginia University, where he has led a 15-year expansion of its programs, achieving national prominence in audition, vision and neuroimaging. Today, Spirou is the director of research in otolaryngology, director of the Sensory Neuroscience Research Center and director of the Center for Neuroscience at West Virginia University. He was nominated by Murray B. Sachs, Bessie Darling Massey Professor and chair of Biomedical Engineering, School of Medicine; and Lloyd B. Minor, Andelot Professor of Laryngology and Otology and chair of the Department of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, School of Medicine.

Daniel Sulmasy
New York

A Franciscan friar as well as a practicing internist, Daniel Sulmasy is a nationally recognized authority on medical ethics, with a special interest in end-of-life issues, ethics education and spirituality in medicine. He holds the Sisters of Charity Chair in Ethics and is the chairman of the John J. Conley Department of Ethics at St. Vincent's Hospital in Manhattan, where he also is an attending physician. He serves as professor of medicine and is director of the Bioethics Institute of New York Medical College. In 2005, Sulmasy was appointed to the New York State Task Force on Life and the Law. He is editor in chief of the journal Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics. The author of four books, he served as an intern and resident in, and assistant chief of, the Osler Medical Service of the Department of Medicine at Johns Hopkins under the tutelage of both Victor McKusick and John Stobo. He was nominated by Eric B. Bass, professor, Department of Medicine, School of Medicine.

Robert Ingersoll White Jr.
New Haven, Conn.

Robert White is an innovator, scholar, teacher and visionary in the fields of radiology and cardiology. He spent his early medical career at Johns Hopkins and is now professor of diagnostic radiology and director of the Vascular Malformation Center at Yale University School of Medicine. White is credited with developing four new techniques in interventional radiology and was part of the team of Johns Hopkins physicians who performed the first pulmonary valvuloplasty, a procedure to widen a stiff or narrowed heart valve. His pioneering work in using various interventional techniques to treat malformations of the pulmonary artery, as well as a rare genetic disorder of the blood vessels, has led to the development of 20 centers all over the world dedicated to helping patients manage the devastating disease. White also is credited with transforming the subspecialty of interventional radiology through pioneering the introduction of direct patient admissions, the use of midlevel practitioners and taking responsibility for a more complete spectrum of patient care. In addition, White lectures nationally and internationally, and has helped to train more than 160 fellows in interventional radiology. He was nominated by Jonathan S. Lewin, Martin Donner Professor of Radiology and chair of the Russell H. Morgan Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, School of Medicine.

Huntington Faxon Willard
Durham, N.C.

Huntington Willard has spent his career delving into the genetic secrets of human health and disease using new genetic and genomic techniques and human molecular genetics. He began his landmark studies at Johns Hopkins, where he was a postdoctoral fellow under the aegis of Kirby Smith. Currently at Duke University, Willard is the Nanaline H. Duke Professor of Genome Sciences, vice chancellor of Genome Sciences and director of the Institute for Genome Sciences and Policy. His research team has delved deeply into the mechanisms that cells use to switch off various genes on the X chromosome, a process necessary for normal development and whose malfunction results in a host of genetic disorders. His research has altered our view of how chromosomal function is coded and how this knowledge can be used both to understand cancer and to provide the next generation of gene delivery using artificial chromosomes. He was nominated byAravinda Chakravarti, Henry J. Knott Professor and former director of the McKusick-Nathans Institute of Genetic Medicine, School of Medicine.

2006

Stylianos Antonarakis
Geneva

Stylianos Antonarakis is widely known for his research in genetic mutations that cause several hereditary conditions, such as hemophilia and thalassemia, and in Down syndrome, a disorder of chromosome number. He is the chair of the Department of Genetic Medicine and Development in the University of Geneva Medical School in Switzerland. His department is recognized for its active role in research, teaching and patient care. Antonarakis spent from 1980 to 1983 as a postdoctoral fellow in the Johns Hopkins Department of Pediatrics and in the Center of Medical Genetics (now the McKusick-Nathans Institute of Genetic Medicine). He was nominated by Victor McKusick, University Professor of Medical Genetics in the Department of Medicine.

Henry Bohlman
Cleveland

A professor of orthopedic surgery at Case Western Reserve University in Cleveland, Henry Bohlman is widely recognized as a leader in the understanding and treatment of cervical spine pathology, a focus he developed as a Johns Hopkins resident working under Robert A. Robinson, chair of Orthopaedic Surgery, between 1964 and 1970. Since then, Bohlman has not only clarified the epidemiology and etiology of cervical spine injuries, but he also has written seminal works on the anatomy and biomechanics of those injuries. Equally important is the role he has played in providing important training and mentoring for today's spine surgery leaders. In fact, virtually every leader in this field today trained at some point with Bohlman. That work continues today. Bohlman was nominated by Paul Sponseller, professor and chief of the Pediatric Division of the Department of Orthopaedics and vice chair of the Department of Orthopaedic Surgery.

Daniel Denegri
Gif-sur-Yvette, France

Following his postdoctoral work from 1969 to 1971 in the Johns Hopkins Department of Physics and Astronomy, Daniel Denegri joined the international team that discovered the W and Z particles, the long-sought carriers of the weak nuclear force, establishing the Standard Model of Particle Physics. Considered one of the greatest scientific breakthroughs of the 20th century, the discovery garnered the Nobel Prize for physics in 1984. Denegri played a major role in that discovery, building a key part of the instrument that detected the new particles. Denegri is currently working to extend the theory as a research director at the Commissariat ? l'Energie Atomique in Saclay, France, near Paris. He was nominated by Jonathan Bagger, Krieger-Eisenhower Professor and chair of Physics and Astronomy.

Daniel Driscoll
Gainesville, Fla.

Daniel Driscoll is one of the best of the vanishing breed known as physician/scientists. His meticulous studies of patients with Angelman and Prader-Willi syndromes are considered milestones in the burgeoning field of epigenetics. Many consider Driscoll the premier clinician/scientist for the care of those with Prader-Willi syndrome, a genetic cause of obesity. In fact, Driscoll devised a method that is now considered the gold standard for diagnosing the syndrome, and he characterized the mutations that are responsible for the disease. Today, he is training both scientists and clinicians at the University of Florida College of Medicine, where he is a professor of pediatrics and genetics and the John T. and Winifred M. Hayward Professor in Genetics Research. Driscoll was at Johns Hopkins for a residency from 1983 to 1986 and on a fellowship from 1986 to 1989. His nominator was Barbara Migeon, professor in the McKusick-Nathans Institute of Genetic Medicine and the Department of Pediatrics.

Donald Gilden
Denver

Long after a bout of the chicken pox fades, the varicella-zoster virus that causes the illness lingers in the human nervous system. At the University of Colorado Health Sciences Center, where he is the Louise Baum Professor and Chair of Neurology, Donald Gilden studies the impact of the latent virus. A second important project led by Gilden uses a molecular approach to understand and define immune system responses in multiple sclerosis with the ultimate goal of being able to pinpoint the antigens responsible for the disease. A native of Baltimore, Gilden came in 1969 to the Department of Epidemiology at the Johns Hopkins School of Hygiene and Public Health (now the Bloomberg School of Public Health), where he spent two years as an NIH postdoctoral fellow. He was nominated by Richard Johnson, Distinguished Service Professor of Neurology, Microbiology and Neuroscience.

Chih-Ming Ho
Los Angeles

Chih-Ming Ho is an expert on nano-fluidic technologies and the wide spectrum of biotech and nanotech applications, such as gene sensing, drug discovery and health maintenance. One of the most frequently cited engineering researchers in the world, he has published 220 papers and holds seven patents. Ho is associate vice chancellor for research for engineering and physical sciences at the University of California, Los Angeles, where he helped establish a micro-electro-mechanical system program that is recognized as one of the best in the field. He was inducted into the National Academy of Engineering in 1997. At Johns Hopkins, he was an associate research scientist from 1974 to 1975 in what is now the Department of Mechanical Engineering. He was nominated by Tza-Huei "Jeff" Wang, assistant professor in the Department of Mechanical Engineering.

Michael Kaback
San Diego

A professor in the Department of Pediatrics and Reproductive Medicine at the University of California, San Diego, Michael Kaback is considered a world leader in the understanding and treatment of a genetic disorder known as Tay-Sachs disease, which affects primarily people of Ashkenazi Jewish descent. In 1971 — a year after research led to the understanding of the biochemical basis of Tay-Sachs — Kaback produced an effective test to detect carriers of this disease and conducted Maryland's first mass public screening. He then spearheaded a national campaign to educate targeted populations about the importance of genetic screening, an action that resulted in far fewer cases of this uniformly fatal disease. Kaback was at Johns Hopkins from 1963 to 1968 as an intern and resident on the Harriet Lane Service and on the faculty of the Department of Pediatrics. In 1991, he was the American College of Medical Genetics' Founding Fellow. He was nominated for the Society of Scholars by Aravinda Chakravarti, the Henry J. Knott Professor and Director of the McKusick-Nathans Institute of Genetic Medicine and professor of medicine, pediatrics and molecular biology and genetics.

Michael Kastan
Memphis, Tenn.

While at Johns Hopkins as a new assistant professor, Michael Kastan discovered that a certain protein, p53, functions as a "guardian of the genome," causing cells to pause and repair damage to their DNA before going on to divide. As p53 is the most commonly mutated gene in human cancer, this work has enormous implications for cancer prevention, diagnosis and treatment. Kastan served as an intern, resident and fellow in the departments of Pediatrics and Oncology at Johns Hopkins from 1984 to 1989. He then joined the Johns Hopkins faculty, working in the departments of Oncology, Pediatrics, and Molecular Biology and Genetics until he moved to St. Jude Children's Research Hospital in Memphis in 1998. Kastan is now chairman of the Department of Hematology/Oncology and director of the Cancer Center at St. Jude. He was nominated for the Society of Scholars by Martin Abeloff, the Marion I. Knott Professor and Director of the Sidney Kimmel Comprehensive Cancer Center, and Curt Civin, the Herman and Walter Samuelson Professor of Oncology and co-director of the Immunology and Hematopoiesis Division.

Jay Knutson
Bethesda, Md.

Jay Knutson is a leader in the development of laser-driven high-speed optical instruments and techniques used in the life sciences. Most recently, he applied femtosecond lasers to the study of water organization around proteins, the binding of DNA-controlling receptors inside cell nuclei and the energy production process within heart cells. Knutson's technical innovations have allowed researchers to make advances in the fields of biology and medicine. From 1980 to 1984, he was a postdoctoral fellow in the Department of Biology at Johns Hopkins. Today, he is chief of the Optical Spectroscopy Section of the Laboratory of Biophysical Chemistry of the National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute at the National Institutes of Health. He was nominated by Ludwig Brand, professor in the Department of Biology.

Athan Kuliopulos
Boston

Athan Kuliopulos is best known for his work identifying an enzyme that activates a receptor that results in cancer cell invasion and tumor growth. Kuliopulos' team was then able to block the spread of breast cancer in animals using special compounds that act on the inside surface of the cell, downstream from the enzyme and receptor. Now an associate professor of medicine, biochemistry and genetics and director of the Hemostasis and Thrombosis Laboratory at Tufts New England Medical Center in Boston, Kuliopulos was a postdoctoral student in the Department of Biological Chemistry and the Department of Pharmacology and Molecular Sciences at Johns Hopkins from 1989 to 1990. He was nominated by Albert Mildvan, professor emeritus of biological chemisty and chemistry; Paul Talalay, the John Jacob Abel Distinguished Service Professor of Pharmacology; and Philip Cole, the E.K. Marshall and Thomas H. Maren Professor of Pharmacology and director of Pharmacology and Molecular Sciences.

Elaine Larson
New York

A leading clinical researcher and nurse educator, Elaine Larson is internationally known for her work in infection control and epidemiology. She is considered one of the experts in the field of hand hygiene and has become a leading authority on the use — and misuse — of antibacterial products. Her service on federal committees and presidential and congressional commissions has laid the groundwork for national policy on the use of antimicrobials and for funding of nursing research and management of HIV infection and Gulf War veterans' illnesses. From 1985 to 1992, Larson was affiliated with the Johns Hopkins School of Nursing and the Department of Epidemiology in the School of Hygiene and Public Health (now the Bloomberg School of Public Health). Today, Larson is a professor of pharmaceutical and therapeutic research and associate dean for research at Columbia University School of Nursing and a professor of epidemiology at Columbia's Joseph Mailman School of Public Health. She was nominated by Martha Hill, professor and dean of the School of Nursing.

Liming Lee
Beijing

Liming Lee is a prominent leader in public health and medicine in the People's Republic of China. Following postdoctoral studies in the Department of Epidemiology at Johns Hopkins in 1991-1992, he served as the dean of the Peking University School of Public Health from 1997 to 2000. As president of the Chinese Academy of Preventive Medicine from 2000 to 2002, Lee led the mission to establish China's Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and was appointed founding director in 2002. Currently a professor of epidemiology at Peking University Health Science Center in Beijing, Lee gained international acclaim when he spearheaded the herculean effort to control the SARS epidemic in China. He was nominated by Guohua Li, professor in the Department of Emergency Medicine.

Mark Orringer
Ann Arbor, Mich.

Mark Orringer specializes in lung cancer surgery, esophageal cancer surgery and the diagnosis and treatment of chest wall tumors. His research focuses on improving methods of esophageal removal and replacement, as well as combined therapies for esophageal cancer and lung cancer. After completing his general surgery and thoracic surgery residencies at Johns Hopkins between 1967 and 1973, Orringer joined the faculty at the University of Michigan, where he has served as the head of General Thoracic Surgery since 1985. For more than 20 years, he has been an excellent teacher and mentor for medical students and surgical residents, and an outstanding clinical thoracic surgeon. He was nominated by Julie Freischlag, the William Steward Halsted Professor and director of the Department of Surgery.

Raymond Roos
Chicago

Raymond Roos is a nationally recognized researcher and leading clinician in the field of neurodegenerative disorders, particularly amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, multiple sclerosis and prion diseases. He spent 1971 to 1976 at the Johns Hopkins School of Medicine, first as a resident and then as a postdoctoral fellow in virology and immunology. Now a professor in the Department of Neurology at the University of Chicago, where he was department chairman from 1996 to 2004, Roos is considered an authority on the relationship between viral infection and neurological disease. He has edited one book and authored or co-authored more than 100 research articles in peer-reviewed journals, nearly 50 book chapters and more than 150 abstracts. A highly respected clinical neurologist and teacher, both at the bedside and at the bench, Roos has been consistently funded by NIH and voluntary agencies for his research, and he is an outstanding example of the complete clinician/teacher/investigator. He was nominated by Richard Johnson, Distinguished Service Professor of Neurology, Microbiology and Neuroscience.

David Serwadda
Kampala, Uganda

During his first year of residency, David Serwadda investigated an outbreak of a new disease in southwestern Uganda. In doing so, he was the first to recognize slim disease, or AIDS, in East Africa. This led Serwadda to a lifelong commitment to HIV prevention and sowed the seeds of what would, in 1987, become the internationally recognized Rakai Health Sciences Program, which has made major contributions to the epidemiology, basic science and clinical science needed for the control of HIV in sub-Saharan Africa. One of the program's collaborators is Johns Hopkins, where Serwadda was a postdoctoral fellow and earned his master's degree in public health in 1991. Today, he is director of the Makerere University Institute of Public Health in Uganda, the premier school of public health in sub-Saharan Africa. He was nominated for the Society of Scholars by Ronald Gray, professor in the Department of Population and Family Health Sciences.

2005

Rafael Beyar
Haifa, Israel

Rafael Beyar has been a leader in interventional cardiology for two decades. Taking advantage of his rigorous training in biomedical engineering and medicine, Beyar has made contributions ranging from fundamental experimental and theoretical analyses of normal and pathological cardiac mechanics to the development of new cardiac therapeutics and diagnostics. During his Johns Hopkins fellowship, he defined the determinants of internal torsion of the heart essential for ejection of blood. Through his entrepreneurial talent, he and his brother developed a novel balloon expandable stent. Thanks to his initiative, the Johns Hopkins-Technion Joint Program for the Biomedical Sciences and Biomedical Engineering was established in 2000.

Guthrie Birkhead
Albany, N.Y.

Guthrie Birkhead is a nationally known public health practitioner, scholar and educator who is at the forefront of applying current scientific knowledge to complex public health problems, ranging from the HIV infection rate among newborns to the low measles vaccination rates among preschool-age children. Birkhead's formal introduction to public health came when he received his master of public health degree from Johns Hopkins. In addition to his own research and academic and clinical achievements, Birkhead has devoted himself to training the next generation of public health professionals.

David Bredt
Indianapolis, Ind.

At a relatively young age, David Bredt is already appreciated as one of a handful of top molecular neuroscientists in the world. His research has revolutionized our understanding of nitric oxide as a neurotransmitter and the dynamics of the major synapses in the brain. Following his study at Johns Hopkins, Bredt had a meteoric academic career at the University of California at San Francisco Medical School. He has recently moved to a position in the private sector as vice president for integrative biology at Eli Lilly and Co.

Patrick Brookhouser
Omaha, Neb.

Patrick Brookhouser is internationally known for developing ways to quickly detect hearing loss in infants and to discover what causes children to lose their hearing. A leader in the field of pediatric otolaryngology and otology, Brookhouser is director of Boys Town National Research Hospital, where he leads one of the largest institutions devoted to understanding and treating hearing loss in children. His Omaha-based hospital works with a neighboring center to bring auditory evaluation services to rural communities. He has been the lead investigator and director of NIH grants focused on nerve-based hearing loss in children.

Robert W. Cahn
Cambridge, England

Robert W. Cahn is a widely respected international leader of the materials science and engineering community through his writing, editing, mentoring and research activities. Before leaving the confines of a laboratory to concentrate more broadly on the promotion of materials science, Cahn made seminal contributions to materials research with his early work on recrystallization and twinning and his subsequent research on the crystallography of ordered intermetallic compounds. His achievements in editing and writing are equally impressive. In addition to more than 230 scientific papers, he has published more than 100 commentaries in Nature and written or edited 39 books.

Edward Clark
Salt Lake City, Utah

Edward Clark has made many contributions to pediatric medicine through both his research and his clinical care. His study of the heart's forces and circulation in chick embryos has helped doctors gain a better understanding of fetal heart development and its role in a lifetime of good cardiac health. As medical director of the Primary Children's Medical Center at the University of Utah, Clark works to ensure that scientific skill and a doctor's empathy go hand in hand.

David Dodge
Ottawa, Canada

David Dodge is an economist's economist. He integrates a scholarly approach to economics with the skills of a practitioner. While at SAIS, he was a respected teacher and the enthusiastic proponent of Canadian studies. Dodge has held many important and influential positions in economics in Canada. He was deputy finance minister and was active in applying economic theory to empirical economic issues. As a governor of the Bank of Canada, he has applied a scholarly approach to the management of the Canadian dollar. He also has been active in overseeing the integration of Canada, Mexico and the United States in the North American Free Trade Area.

W. Bruce Fye
Rochester, Minn.

W. Bruce Fye combines his fascination with medicine's past with his present contributions to the field. A professor of medicine and medical history at the Mayo Clinic, Fye is a past president of the American College of Cardiology. He has written two books on the history of medicine, including the Johns Hopkins University Press book American Cardiology, winner of the prestigious Welch Medal from the American Association for the History of Medicine.

David Guyer
New York, NY

David Guyer, who received his medical degree and his ophthalmological specialty training at the Wilmer Eye Institute, has an exemplary clinical, academic and business record. Combining his clinical expertise with outstanding entrepreneurial skills, he established Eyetech Pharmaceuticals, a private company that has collaborative arrangements with large pharmaceutical corporations to develop and commercialize ophthalmic treatments. His work has included age-related macular degeneration and diabetic macular edema, two ophthalmic disorders of increasing impact on our aging population. Guyer's intense intellectual curiosity, resourcefulness, enthusiasm, creativity and commitment to excellence make him a leader in the field of ophthalmology.

Stanley Hamilton
Houston, Texas

Stanley Hamilton received his resident and fellowship training in the Department of Pathology at Johns Hopkins. He joined the faculty of that department, rising to become professor of pathology and director of the Division of Gastrointestinal and Liver Pathology. Among his widely recognized achievements was his research on Barrett's esophagus and colorectal neoplasia. In 1988, Hamilton left Johns Hopkins to become head of the Division of Pathology at the University of Texas M.D. Anderson Cancer Center in Houston. There, his strong leadership, teaching and investigative capabilities continue to play major roles in institutional, national and international affairs related to research into the pathogenesis, diagnostic methods and prognosis of neoplastic diseases.

M. Alfred Haynes
Corona, Calif.

M. Alfred Haynes is a pioneer in addressing disparities in health status, access to care and professional health education opportunities for underrepresented minorities and the poor. Over the course of his long and distinguished career, he has been a major architect of social justice for black professionals in the health sciences. One of the first African-American faculty members at Johns Hopkins, Haynes played an important role in a national study titled Hunger U.S.A. and contributed to establishing racial integration policies for the university. Following the Watts riots in Los Angeles, Haynes became an early faculty member and associate dean of the Drew Postgraduate Medical School, an institution he later served as dean and where he is now president emeritus.

E. Carmack Holmes
Los Angeles, Calif.

A world leader in surgical oncology, E. Carmack Holmes is now executive director of the Center for Advanced Surgical and Interventional Technology at the University of California, Los Angeles, Medical Center. He trained in the Johns Hopkins Department of Surgery and then spent three years at the National Cancer Institute before moving to UCLA Medical Center, where he rapidly rose to the position of professor and chairman of the Department of Surgery. Holmes also is known for having taught and mentored many young surgeons, including Julie Ann Freischlag, the current chair of the Department of Surgery at the Johns Hopkins School of Medicine.

Craig Peters
Boston, Mass.
Craig Peters is an internationally known and respected clinician and investigator in pediatric urology. Recognized as one of the world's experts in pediatric laparoscopy and minimally invasive surgery in children, he has made major contributions to the basic science of developmental biology and physiology of the bladder. Having received his medical and specialty urological training at Johns Hopkins, Peters joined the faculty of the Harvard University School of Medicine and is an associate professor of surgery at Children's Hospital in Boston. He is held in high regard by his colleagues, as evidenced by his election to membership in the Society for Pediatric Urological Surgeons, where he is one of only five North American members.

William Poole
St. Louis, Mo.

William Poole is that rare combination of path-breaking research scholar and distinguished public servant. While at Johns Hopkins, he showed how monetary policy should respond to the different types of disturbances that impact the economy. This work is still cited some three decades later. After years of productive work at the Federal Reserve System, the Reserve Bank of Australia and the President's Council of Economic Advisers, and as a professor at Brown University, he was named in 1998 to the presidency of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis, where he serves with distinction. He remains a creative, constructive and generous contributor to economic research and policy-making.

Maithili Sharan
Delhi, India

Maithili Sharan is head of the Centre for Atmospheric Sciences at the Indian Institute of Technology in Delhi, India. He has made many outstanding contributions to the fields of environmental physiological and computational fluid mechanics and molecular transport. Sharan is credited with developing innovative mathematical models for gas transport in pulmonary and systemic circulations, and he has laid a strong foundation for the understanding of the physiological processes underlying gas transport. He also has contributed to the development of mathematical models of the dispersion of air pollutants in low wind conditions, which have helped him analyze the infamous Bhopal gas leak.

2004

Lukas P. Baumgartner
Lausanne, Switzerland

Lukas Baumgartner, known for multidisciplinary work, has developed a new way to apply transport theory to problems associated with mineral crystallization and rock alteration. His findings have been used to understand the development of mountain belts, such as the Alps and the Andes, and the formation of sedimentary, metamorphic and igneous rocks. He is currently director of the Institute of Mineralogy and Petrology at the University of Lausanne in Switzerland. Awards recognizing his outstanding achievements include the Paul Niggli Medal of the Swiss Mineralogical Petrological Society and the Mineralogical Society of America Award.

Vann Bennett
Durham, N.C.

Best known for his discovery and characterization of the ankyrins, Vann Bennett has markedly advanced knowledge of how membrane transport proteins are precisely localized in cell membrane domains. This work has brought Bennett wide recognition as a basic cell biologist and as a pioneer elucidating the molecular basis of human diseases. His work most recently pinpointed the genetic mechanism for an inherited form of cardiac Long QT syndrome, a deadly heart problem that strikes seemingly healthy young people. Bennett is currently the James B. Duke Professor of biology, biochemistry and neuroscience at Duke University Medical Center.

Douglas F. Covey
St. Louis, Mo.

Douglas Covey has made several significant contributions to the field of pharmacology. By synthesizing one of the first potent and selective aromatase inhibitors for applications in breast cancer, he laid the foundation for the development of a class of clinically valuable therapeutics for the condition. He also has designed and synthesized a variety of steroids that have demonstrated great utility in the functional analysis of interactions between the nervous system and the endocrine glands, as well as the pathways of cell signaling.

J. Richard Gaintner
Gainesville, Fla.

Richard Gaintner has been instrumental in the shaping of academic medical centers in this country. Following his departure from the University of Connecticut, he returned to Johns Hopkins, where he strengthened the relationship between the hospital and the School of Medicine. Two years later, he joined Albany Medical College as president and CEO, then moved to Harvard-affiliated Deaconess Hospital in Boston, where he again was president and CEO. After serving for four years as CEO of Shands Hospital at the University of Florida, he went into a brief retirement, returning to the medical field as executive vice president for health sciences at Georgetown. Illness forced him to end his illustrious career in 2002.

Pascal J. Goldschmidt
Durham, N.C.

Pascal Goldschmidt is widely considered one of the nation's leading physician-scientists in the field of cardiovascular medicine. As a researcher, he discovered a now well-recognized platelet receptor polymorphism, a significant factor in heart attacks. He also uncovered several cellular pathways that cause human disease. He served as director of Johns Hopkins' Henry Ciccarone Center for the Prevention of Heart Diseases, Thrombosis Center and Bernard Vascular Biology Laboratory. After winning numerous prestigious awards, Goldschmidt was recruited to direct Ohio State University's Heart and Lung Institute. In 2000, he was recruited to head the internationally recognized cardiology program at Duke University. In 2003, he became chairman of the Duke Department of Medicine.

David S. Guzick
Rochester, N.Y.

A national and international leader in the field of reproductive endocrinology, David Guzick has been recognized as an expert in the epidemiology, pathogenesis and management of endometriosis and polycystic ovary syndrome among infertile women. He is currently both the principal investigator of the K12 Women's Reproductive Health Research Career Center and dean of the School of Medicine and Dentistry at the University of Rochester Medical Center. He has published more than 100 articles in the fields of obstetrics and gynecology, infertility and reproductive endocrinology.

Steven A. Leibel
New York City

Steven Leibel has been a pioneer in the development and clinical application of new radiation therapy techniques in the treatment of malignant brain tumors, as well as other pioneering clinical treatments. His efforts have transformed the way patients with prostate cancer are managed with radiation. In addition to his research breakthroughs, Leibel has trained some of the best young leaders in the field. His many honors include winning the 2002 Gold Medal of the American Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology, the society's highest award. He is currently chair of the Department of Radiation Oncology at Memorial-Sloan Kettering Cancer Center.

R. John Leigh
Cleveland, Ohio

In the Neurology and Biomedical Engineering departments at Case Western Reserve University, John Leigh has built an outstanding program in the study of eye movements, inquiring deeply into the relationship between vision and balance. He has written the definitive textbook on the neurology of eye movements. Clinical applications of Leigh's research have been published in Neurology, Ophthalmology and the best basic science journals. He holds an endowed chair at Case Western Reserve and was named the Annual Visiting "Brain" Scholar at Imperial College, London, for 2003. His contributions span basic science, clinical science and clinical practice.

Sverre O. Lie
Oslo, Norway

Sverre Lie has had a long and distinguished career at the National Hospital of Norway, where he has been in the departments of Pediatrics and Pediatric Research since 1967. He has developed pioneering diagnoses and treatments for pediatric cancer and is the lead author on an 18-year study of the treatment of leukemia in children. In the late 1990s, he oversaw the design and construction of a modern children's hospital in Oslo. His honors include membership in the Norwegian Academy of Science, honorary fellowship in the Royal College of Pediatrics and Child Health in Great Britain and a knighthood (Order of St. Olav) bestowed by the king of Norway.

Nubia Munoz
Lyon, France

Nubia Munoz' work at the International Agency for Research on Cancer in Lyon, France, and with teams across the world led to establishing the relationship between the human papillomavirus and cervical cancers. This recognition of a viral cause of cervical cancer has led to the development of vaccines that would prevent these infections and that hold promise for the control and possible elimination of this cancer.

Suzanne Ostrand-Rosenberg
Baltimore, Md

Suzanne Ostrand-Rosenberg has achieved a fruitful balance between excellence in research and clarity and quality in teaching. She has made major contributions to the direction of tumor immunology and has developed relevant animal models for translating her research into the clinical area. In addition, she has made a major commitment to teaching and mentoring students in her field. Ostrand-Rosenberg presently holds the Robert and Jane Meyerhoff Chair of Biochemistry at the University of Maryland, Baltimore County.

Alan Pestronk
St. Louis, Mo.

Alan Pestronk's research involves a wide variety of autoimmune and genetic diseases of nerves and muscles. His findings have led to improved diagnosis as well as treatment of these diseases. At Johns Hopkins, Pestronk collaborated closely with Daniel B. Drachman and John Griffin. He played a key role in elucidating the best understood human autoimmune disease, myasthenia gravis. In addition, he studied factors that determined nerve regeneration. His work here shaped the course of his career, which focuses on the immunological basis of neurological disorders. A professor in the departments of Neurology and Pathology at Washington University in St. Louis School of Medicine, Pestronk also created the most widely used Internet textbook of Neurology, which is used by more than 2,000 people each day.

John Milton Peters
Los Angeles, Calif

Since completing his medical internship at Johns Hopkins, John Milton Peters has dedicated nearly 40 years to studying the effects of the environment on respiratory health, from the effects of secondhand smoke to the causes of childhood leukemia. Most recently, he led the Children's Health Study, measuring the impact of air pollution on thousands of children in southern California. The results have led to new regulations for air quality. Peters is director of the Division of Occupational and Environmental Health at the University of Southern California School of Medicine.

Andrew Weiland
New York City

Andrew Weiland is an upper extremity surgeon who has made major contributions in the management of patients with traumatic and reconstructive problems. He is especially known for his work in microvascular surgery, which has significantly improved the care of patients with traumatic amputations and difficult reconstructive problems. He also is a talented educator who has mentored numerous individuals. In addition to clinical and teaching contributions, he has been a superb leader, having made major impacts in many societies, including the American Orthopaedic Association, the American Board of Orthopaedic Surgery and the American Hand Society.

Garen J. Wintemute
Sacramento, Calif.

Garen Wintemute is recognized as one of the nation's foremost scholars addressing violence as a public health problem. Time magazine named him a Hero in Medicine, and he is the recipient of many awards from professional and academic societies. In addition to being director of the Violence Prevention Research Program at the University of California, Davis, he is a practicing emergency physician and has served as a consultant for the World Health Organization, U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, and the American Red Cross.

2003

Bjorn Afzelius
Stockholm, Sweden

Dr. Afzelius has made seminal contributions to the understanding of the motility of sperm and cilia. A professor emeritus at Stockholm University, he has trained a large number of people in the use of electron microscopy for biomedical research. Dr. Afzelius has published 250 scientific papers and has written books on spermatology, cell biology, and biomedical electron microscopy.

Appiah Amirtharajah
Atlanta, Georgia

Dr. Amirtharajah is among a small group of the very best environmental engineers and practitioners in the field of potable water treatment and supply. Using innovative physical and chemical technologies, his work has improved the health of people throughout the world, across geographical and cultural boundaries. Over the past 25 years, Dr. Amirtharajah has been a mentor for his students and a valued colleague for others working to provide safe, reliable, and affordable water supplies.

Eric W. Fonkalsrud
Santa Monica, Calif.

For decades, Dr. Fonkalsrud has been one of the outstanding leaders in pediatric surgery. During his 35-year tenure as chief of pediatric surgery at the University of California, Los Angeles, School of Medicine, Dr. Fonkalsrud developed an active clinical and research program in the management of inflammatory bowel disease in children and adults. He was among the developers of the ileoanal pouch procedure for patients with ulcerative colitis.

James D. Griffin
Boston, Massachusetts

Chair of the Department of Medical Oncology at the Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Dr. Griffin is internationally recognized for his research in the clinical and biologic aspects of hemotologic malignancies, or cancers of the blood cells. He was chosen to lead his department because of his vision and compassion; more than 100,000 patients visit his department's clinics each year. Dr. Griffin is a professor at Harvard Medical School.

Arthur P. Grollman
Stony Brook, New York

Dr. Grollman is director of the Zickler Laboratory of Chemical Biology at the State University of New York at Stony Brook, where he explores the relationship between the structure of damaged DNA and the enzymes involved in repairing it. Dr. Grollman's studies have contributed to our understanding of the aging process and are used in developing cancer-fighting chemotherapeutic drugs. He is a professor of medicine, experimental medicine, and pharmacological sciences.

William G. Kaelin Jr.
Boston, Massachusetts

A Howard Hughes Medical Institute investigator, Dr. Kaelin works to discover why mutations of tumor-suppressing genes cause cancer. His work provides insight into the genetic factors that make people more likely to develop the disease, and he is developing innovative molecularly targeted cancer therapy. Dr. Kaelin is a professor in the Department of Medicine at the Dana-Farber Cancer Institute and at Brigham and Women's Hospital, Harvard Medical School.

Kenneth A. Krackow
Buffalo, New York

Dr. Krackow is the clinical director of the Buffalo General Hospital Department of Orthopaedics and well-known in his field as an innovator and teacher. In October 2001, he performed the first computer-assisted total knee replacement in North America, using a surgical navigation system he developed to assist surgeons locate exact points within the body.

Frederick Hamilton Linthicum Jr.
Los Angeles, Calif.

Dr. Linthicum has helped millions of people affected by hearing loss and balance problems through his dedicated study of pathology in the human temporal bone, which contains the organs responsible for hearing and balance. His roles as teacher and mentor have further amplified his contributions to the field of otology. Dr. Linthicum is director of the Temporal Bone Histopathology Laboratory at the House Ear Institute in Los Angeles, where he has been an affiliate since 1957.

Kevin G. Rice
Iowa City, Iowa

As a National Institutes of Health postdoctoral fellow, Dr. Rice spent three years at Johns Hopkins studying the relationships between carbohydrates and carbohydrate-binding proteins. His work has become a highly respected classic in the field. Now a professor and division head of medicinal and natural products chemistry at the College of Pharmacy at the University of Iowa (his alma mater), Dr. Rice has trained many Ph.D.'s and postdoctoral fellows. In 2001, he earned the American Chemical Society's Horace S. Isbell Award, a coveted award bestowed only to scientists under 40 years old, for his development and application of targeted gene delivery systems, based on carbohydrate-recognition in biological systems.

Ira Michael Rutkow
Freehold, New Jersey

Dr. Rutkow is one of the world's eminent historians of surgery. His book American Surgery: An Illustrated History was named a Notable Book of the Year in 1994 by The New York Times Book Review. He is an internationally known teacher and founder of The Hernia Center, the nation's only private hernia hospital, where he uses techniques that reduce patient discomfort and speed recovery. Surgeons from all over the world visit the center to learn from Dr. Rutkow.

Terrence J. Sejnowski
La Jolla, Calif.

A world leader in the field of computational neuroscience, Dr. Sejnowski did research at Johns Hopkins that laid the foundation for the field of neural network analysis. In 1982, he became an assistant professor of biophysics at Johns Hopkins, where he received the Presidential Young Investigator Award. Today, Dr. Sejnowski is director of the Institute for Neural Computation at the University of California, San Diego. He is also head of the Computational Neurobiology Laboratory at the Salk Institute.

Robert Skidelsky,
Lord Skidelsky of Tilton

East Sussex, England Lord Skidelsky is an economist and historian and author of the definitive biography of economist John Maynard Keynes. A professor of economics at the University of Warwick in England, he has also written extensively on several topics in 20th-century history, most recently on Russia and Eastern Europe after communism.

Leigh Thompson
Charleston, South Carolina

Dr. Thompson is one of the country's leading clinical pharmacologists. At Eli Lilly and Co., he led development of major new therapeutic entities including the first recombinant DNA product, human insulin. During his clinical training and faculty time at Johns Hopkins, he initiated the first intensive care unit and developed hydroxyethyl starch as a blood substitute.

Herbert F. Voigt
Boston, Massachusetts

A professor of biomedical engineering at Boston University, Dr. Voigt has contributed greatly to the understanding of the mechanics of human hearing. In recognition of his leadership in the field, he was elected president of the Biomedical Engineering Society in 1999 and was a co-recipient of the Biomedical Engineering Society's 2002 Presidential Award. Dr. Voigt also writes "Scientifically Speaking," a general interest science and technology column for the Milton Times, a community newspaper in Massachusetts.

Paul Kieran Whelton
New Orleans, Louisiana

Dr. Whelton spent most of his professional career at Johns Hopkins, rising through the ranks to become a professor of epidemiology and medicine. Throughout his career, he has made numerous contributions to our understanding of how to prevent heart disease, renal disease, and hypertension. Along with Dr. Leon Gordis, Dr. Whelton is credited with starting the Welch Center for Prevention, Epidemiology, and Clinical Research at Johns Hopkins. Dr. Whelton is now senior vice president for Health Sciences at Tulane University and was previously dean of the Tulane School of Public Health and Tropical Medicine.

2002

Daniel J. Auerbach, senior manager and research staff member, IBM Almaden Research Center, San Jose, Calif. At Hopkins: Assistant professor in the Department of Chemistry, 1975 to 1978. Nominator: Paul J. Dagdigian, Krieger School of Arts and Sciences.
    Best known for his work on the dynamical aspects of atomic and molecular interactions with solid surfaces, Daniel Auerbach pioneered the application of molecular beam and laser techniques to surface science problems, opening up exciting new areas of study. His research has spanned a broad range of topics in atomic, molecular and optical physics; chemical physics; surface chemistry; and condensed matter physics. In addition to his scientific achievements, he has played an important management role at IBM, where he has been involved in developing programs in magnetic storage, microelectronics, displays and computation.

Robert M. Blizzard, chairman emeritus, Department of Pediatrics, University of Virginia School of Medicine; chief emeritus, Children's Medical Center, University of Virginia Medical Center; president, Genentech Foundation for Growth and Development, Charlottesville, Va.
    At Hopkins: postdoctoral fellow, Department of Pediatrics, 1955 to 1957; associate professor and professor, 1960 to 1973. Nominator: Michael A. Levine, School of Medicine.
    Robert Blizzard has made multiple significant contributions in the field of endocrinology. His careful and systematic clinical studies of patients with autoimmune endocrine diseases enabled him to propose a classification of polyglandular autoimmune diseases that is now internationally accepted. He has also elucidated the critical role that growth hormone plays in childhood, adolescence and aging. This work led to the controversial notion, now generally accepted, that growth hormone replacement is necessary throughout life.

Thomas A. Cebula, director, Office of Applied Research and Safety Assessment, Food and Drug Administration.
    At Hopkins: graduate student in the department of Biology, 1973 to 1977; postdoctoral fellow in the departments of Infectious Diseases and Microbiology (now Molecular Biology and Genetics), 1977 to 1978. Nominator: Maurice J. Bessman, Krieger School of Arts and Sciences.
    With a strong and broad base in biochemistry, microbiology, immunology and genetics, Thomas Cebula is one of those rare investigators who have made important contributions in basic as well as applied research. At the Food and Drug Administration, he has had a profound effect on public health issues by developing molecular methods for the detection of pathogens in the environment and in the food supply.

Leland W.K. Chung, John Kluge Distinguished Professor of Urology, Biochemistry, Hematology/Oncology and director of the Molecular Urology and Therapeutics Program, Emory University School of Medicine.
    At Hopkins: postdoctoral fellow, Department of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics (now Pharmacology and Molecular Sciences) and the James Buchanan Brady Urological Institute, 1969 to 1972. Nominator: Donald S. Coffey, School of Medicine.
    An outstanding international leader in the field of urological research, Leland Chung developed the first model of human prostate cancer metastasis. That has led to a new form of gene therapy for prostate cancer that now is in clinical trials and shows great promise. A professor at Emory University, he has won the Ben Rogers Award for Excellence in Research at the M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, the State of Georgia Distinguished Cancer Clinician and Scientist Award and the prestigious Wu Jieping Medical Science Award from the Chinese government.

John F. Ferguson, professor of civil engineering, University of Washington.
    At Hopkins: postdoctoral fellow in the Department of Geography and Environmental Engineering, 1970 to 1974. Nominator: Edward J. Bouwer, Whiting School of Engineering.
    In the field of water quality engineering, John Ferguson's research contributions span several areas, including microbial and chemical processes in anaerobic treatment and advanced biological treatment systems. His work on biological treatment processes for controlling hazardous wastes is providing treatment options that promise to reduce the risks to the public and the environment. In addition to conducting meritorious research, he is dedicated to teaching and working with students, many of whom will be among the next generation of exemplary environmental engineers.

Mohamed Gad-el-Hak, professor of aerospace and mechanical engineering, University of Notre Dame.
    At Hopkins: graduate student in the Department of Mechanics (now Mechanical Engineering), 1968 to 1972, and postdoctoral fellow in the Department of Mechanics and Materials Science (now Mechanical Engineering), 1973. Nominator: Andrea Prosperetti, Whiting School of Engineering.
    Winner of the Alexander von Humboldt Prize, Germany's highest prize for U.S. scientists and researchers, Mohamed Gad-el-Hak is well known for advancing several important and novel diagnostic tools for turbulent flows and for discovering the efficient mechanism by which a turbulent spot rapidly grows by destabilizing a surrounding laminar flow. He has also worked on many other important flow problems and in particular, most recently, in the new area of micro-fluid mechanics.

Ibrahim A. Gambari, undersecretary-general and special adviser on Africa, the United Nations Secretariat.
    At Hopkins: visiting professor, African Studies Program at SAIS, 1986 to 1989. Nominator: Gilbert M. Khadiagala, SAIS.
    In a long and distinguished career, Ibrahim Gambari has traveled widely and served with distinction as both a diplomat and a scholar. Prior to joining the U.N. Secretariat, he was Nigeria's longest serving ambassador/permanent representative to the United Nations. As a scholar, he has published a number of books on foreign policy-making, economics and African politics, including Theory and Reality in Foreign Policy Decision Making, which is an insightful account of his tenure as foreign minister of Nigeria. He has taught at SAIS, Georgetown and the Brookings Institution and is the founder of the Savannagh Centre for Diplomacy, a think tank in Nigeria devoted to analyzing and solving problems in Africa.

Melvin M. Grumbach, E.B. Shaw Professor of Pediatrics Emeritus, University of California, San Francisco.
    At Hopkins: postdoctoral fellow, School of Medicine at the Harriet Lane Home, 1953 to 1955. Nominator: Michael A. Levine, School of Medicine.
    As a leader in research on the hormonal control of growth and maturation, Melvin Grumbach has studied the development and function of the human endocrine and neuroendocrine systems from fetal life through puberty. His current research is focused on deciphering gene mutations that affect the growth and maturation of bones as well as sexual development. He is also past president of the Endocrine Society, the American Pediatric Society and the Lawson Wilkins Pediatric Endocrine Society.

Willa A. Hsueh, professor of medicine and chief of the Division of Endocrinology, Diabetes and Hypertension, University of California, Los Angeles.
    At Hopkins: postdoctoral fellow, Division of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Department of Medicine, 1973 to 1976. Nominator: Paul W. Ladenson, School of Medicine.
    Willa Hsueh directs a major research team investigating the impact of diabetes and other metabolic factors on the cardiovascular system. Her projects span the spectrum of translational research from bench to animal cage to bedside. She is highly respected and internationally recognized as having made important contributions to the understanding of the metabolic pathways involved in the pathogenesis of atherosclerotic vascular disease. She is also an accomplished medical educator and mentors a number of junior faculty and fellows in clinical and bench research.

Gerald A. Klassen, emeritus professor, emeritus university vice president and emeritus department chair, Dalhousie University in Nova Scotia.
    At Hopkins: postdoctoral fellow, 1963 to 1965. Nominator: Kenneth Zierler, School of Medicine.
    A major figure in Canadian medicine, Gerald Klassen is a retired professor of medicine, chairman of the Department of Physiology and Biophysics, and vice president for academic and research affairs at Dalhousie University in Nova Scotia. A past president of the Canadian Society of Clinical Investigation, Klassen holds several patents on instruments for medical research and presides over a company he founded for their manufacture. He helped develop a method for studying regional myocardial mechanics in man, and he developed a laser Doppler method for studies in the beating heart, with which he found that a major determinant of myocardial blood flow is the folding of red blood cells by heart muscle cells.

Mark A. Klebanoff, director, Division of Epidemiology, Statistics and Prevention Research, National Institutes of Health.
    At Hopkins: M.P.H. student, 1982 to 1983; taught reproductive epidemiology in the Department of Population Dynamics, 1985 to 1997; currently part-time faculty in the Department of Population and Family Health Sciences. Nominators: Bernard Guyer and Ronald Gray, Bloomberg School of Public Health.
    In work that is widely cited and which has had important implications on national policy, Mark Klebanoff has conducted epidemiologic research in maternal and child health, demonstrating that a woman's own birth weight and gestational age affect the risk of low birth weight and preterm birth in her offspring. He is also noted for his contributions to several randomized trials on the prevention of preeclampsia and effects of the control of infection during pregnancy on preterm delivery and low birth weight. Klebanoff has worked for the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development since 1987 and in 1999 was named the director of the NICHD's Division of Epidemiology, Statistics and Prevention Research.

Giovanni Romeo, professor of medical genetics, University of Bologna Medical School.
    At Hopkins: postdoctoral fellow, Department of Pediatrics, Division of Genetics, 1968 to 1971. Nominator: Victor A. McKusick, School of Medicine.
    Giovanni Romeo's research has been wide-ranging in the study of human genetics and genetic disorders with almost 300 publications. He has organized a short course in medical genetics that is the European equivalent of the Bar Harbor Course of Johns Hopkins and The Jackson Laboratory. At the University of Bologna, he is developing an institute of genetic medicine to advance the fields of genetics and genomics in Italy. A collaboration with the McKusick-Nathans Institute of Genetic Medicine at Hopkins promises to forge another relationship of Johns Hopkins with Bologna.

Larry A. Sargent, chairman, Department of Plastic Surgery, University of Tennessee.
    At Hopkins: postdoctoral fellow in general surgery, 1977 to 1979, and plastic surgery, 1980 to 1983. Nominator: Paul N. Manson, School of Medicine.
    Larry Sargent has distinguished himself as an educator, surgeon and mentor and is one of the most prominent program directors and craniofacial surgeons in the nation. While he was a resident in plastic surgery, the technical superiority of his facial fracture repair results became known, and some of the original work on complex facial fracture injury repair, orbital reconstruction and nasoethmoid repair was written. He is founder and director of the nationally recognized Tennessee Craniofacial Center, which is one of the best known in the country for the excellence of its results. His skill as a surgeon and the technical excellence of his results are acknowledged universally among plastic surgeons and serve as a standard for his profession. He has also been active in the design of new equipment and techniques that benefit the entire community.

Barry Shane, professor, Department of Nutritional Sciences and Toxicology, University of California, Berkeley.
    At Hopkins: assistant and associate professor, Department of Biochemistry (now Biochemistry and Molecular Biology), 1977 to 1985. Nominator: Roger McMacken, Bloomberg School of Public Health.
    Barry Shane is internationally recognized for his groundbreaking research on folic acid and other water-soluble vitamins. He and his research group have cloned many of the human genes encoding the key enzymes in the regulation of folate-dependent one-carbon metabolism and have identified influences in these genes that affect the risk of vascular disease, cancer and birth defects. He has collaborated extensively with epidemiologists to evaluate the public health implications of his findings. Shane is a recipient of the Mead Johnson Award from the American Institute of Nutrition.

Lynne S. Wilcox, director, Division of Reproductive Health, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, Center for Disease Control
    At Hopkins: M.P.H. program and postdoctoral fellowship in Maternal and Child Health (now Population and Family Health Sciences), 1986 to 1988. Nominator: Donna M. Strobino, Bloomberg School of Public Health.
    Lynne Wilcox's research has focused on several women's reproductive health concerns, including the effects of tubal sterilization on the health of women and the population variations in hysterectomy rates. While she has made many contributions, she is best known for her work on the effect of assisted reproductive technology on pregnancy and multiple birth risk. This work has greatly contributed to understanding the magnitude of the technology's effect on multiple births and, in turn, the rate of low-weight births in the country.

2001

Gordon Leslie Ada, visiting fellow, Division of Immunology and Cell Biology, John Curtin School of Medical Research, Australian National University.
   At Hopkins: Postdoctoral fellow in the Department of Molecular Microbiology and Immunology, 1988-91. Nominated by Noel R. Rose, Bloomberg School of Public Health.
   One of the world's most distinguished virologists and immunologists, Gordon Ada did landmark research on the localization of antigen during the early stages of the immune response. Under his leadership, the Department of Microbiology at the John Curtin School in Canberra, Australia, became an international center for the study of the immune response to viral infections, work for which colleagues of his received a Nobel Prize. Ada also has been a leader in the development of vaccines worldwide. While at Johns Hopkins, he served as director of the Center for AIDS Research.

Theodore A. Bickart, retired president, Colorado School of Mines, Golden, Colo.
   At Hopkins: Postdoctoral fellow in the Department of Electrical Engineering (now Electrical and Computer Engineering), 1960-61. Nominated by C.R. Westgate, Whiting School of Engineering.
   Fourteenth president of the Colorado School of Mines and former dean of engineering at Syracuse and Michigan State universities, Theodore Bickart achieved national prominence as a leader in engineering education. He was the driving force behind a new accreditation process that has impacted engineering programs worldwide.

Ron F. Blackwelder, professor, Department of Aerospace Engineering, University of Southern California.
    At Hopkins: Postdoctoral fellow in the Department of Mechanics (now the Department of Mechanical Engineering), May to September 1970. Nominated by Andrea Prosperetti, Whiting School of Engineering.
    Ron Blackwelder has made seminal contributions in the areas of turbulence, flow stability, drag reduction and instrumentation, and his contribution to particle image velocimetry was instrumental in placing this technique at the forefront of contemporary experimental fluid mechanics. In addition, Blackwelder has played an active role in practical aspects of aerodynamics, including the relationship between the flow ingested by aircraft engines and their performance.

Linda R. Gooding, professor of microbiology and immunology, Emory University School of Medicine.
    At Hopkins: Postdoctoral fellow in the Department of Biology, 1972-74. Nominated by Michael Eddin, Krieger School of Arts and Sciences.
    Linda Gooding has made important contributions in understanding the immune response to viruses and was the first to show how virus antigens are presented to immune effector cells. Her work has provided key insights into the cell biology of immune responses and assists with the treatment of virus infection and the use of small DNA viruses for gene therapy.

Robert J. Gould, vice president, Merck Research Laboratories, West Point, Pa.
    At Hopkins: Postdoctoral fellow in the Department of Neuroscience, 1981-84. Nominated by Solomon H. Snyder, School of Medicine.
    As vice president of pharmacology at the Merck Research Laboratories, Robert Gould has played an important role in developing a major new anti-clotting drug, Aggrastat, which has already decreased the incidence of heart attack and death in patients with coronary artery disease. He is regarded as one of the top cardiovascular research directors in the pharmaceutical industry.

Michael A. Hayes, professor of mathematical physics in the Department of Mathematical Physics, University College Dublin.
    At Hopkins: Postdoctoral fellow in the Mechanics Department (now the Department of Mechanical Engineering), 1961-62. Nominated by Marc Parlange, Whiting School of Engineering.
    A professor in the Department of Mathematical Physics at University College Dublin, Michael Hayes has done pioneering work in all areas of mechanics. In particular, his work on wave propagation in materials, deformation of materials and fluid mechanics has had implications for virtually all branches of engineering and applied mathematics.

Haig H. Kazazian Jr., Seymour Gray Professor of Molecular Medicine in Genetics and chairman, Department of Genetics, University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine.
    At Hopkins: Postdoctoral fellow, 1964-66; JHH house staff, 1968-69. Nominated by Barbara R. Migeon, School of Medicine.
    Chairman of the Department of Genetics at the University of Pennsylvania, Haig Kazazian is an outstanding medical geneticist, teacher and creative experimentalist who has contributed extensively to our knowledge of the molecular basis of human genetic disease.

Herbert Lepor, professor and Martin Spatz Chairman of Urology, New York University School of Medicine.
    At Hopkins: Postdoctoral fellow in the Department of Urology, 1981-85. Nominated by Patrick C. Walsh, School of Medicine.
    Herbert Lepor is a pioneer in the development of medical treatment for benign prostatic hyperplasia. His contributions include characterization of alpha receptors in the smooth muscle of the prostate and development of clinical trials that demonstrated the superiority of alpha-blockers over the other common form of medical management. At age 37, he was named chairman of Urology at New York University, where he has developed one of the finest academic urology programs in the nation.

David M. Ozonoff, professor and chair, Boston University School of Public Health.
    At Hopkins: Postdoctoral fellow in the Department of International Health, 1968. Nominated by John D. Groopman, Bloomberg School of Public Health.
    David Ozonoff, chair of the Department of Environmental Health at the Boston University School of Public Health, has been internationally recognized for his pioneering work in studying health risks to communities from exposures to toxic chemicals. This work is a model for communities faced with the consequences of hazardous waste contamination.

Peter Safar, Distinguished Professor of Resuscitation Medicine, Safar Center for Resuscitation Research, University of Pittsburgh.
    At Hopkins: Postdoctoral fellow in the Department of Anesthesiology, 1954-61. Nominated by Roger A. Johns, School of Medicine.
    A native of Vienna, Austria, Peter Safar spent many years in Baltimore at Johns Hopkins and Baltimore City Hospitals. It was during those years that his work on cardiopulmonary resuscitation developed into the life-saving techniques commonly referred to as CPR. His long and illustrious career has seen him establish three academic anesthesiology departments and make countless contributions to emergency medicine and helping save people's lives following cardiac arrest.

Konrad Sandhoff, professor and director, Department of Biochemistry, Kekule-Institute for Organic Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Bonn.
    At Hopkins: Postdoctoral fellow in the Department of Biology, 1972-74. Nominated by Saul Roseman, Krieger School of Arts and Sciences.
    In the field of lysosomal storage diseases, one of which bears his name, Konrad Sandhoff has clearly established himself as the preeminent leader in the field. His laboratory has played a principal role in elucidating the pathways of synthesis and degradation of these compounds, which permits identifying the genetic defect at the molecular level. His work has very important clinical implications.

George Scangos, president and chief executive officer, Exelixis Inc., South San Francisco.
    At Hopkins: Assistant professor, 1980-86, and associate professor, July to December 1986, in the Department of Biology. Nominated by Victor Corces, Eaton E. Lattman and E.N. Moudrianakis, Krieger School of Arts and Sciences, and Thomas J. Kelly Jr., School of Medicine.
    George Scangos was one of a team of three scientists to generate the first transgenic mouse. This breakthrough and the applications of it, as pioneered by Scangos over several years, paved the way for the current developments in molecular diagnostics, gene therapy and the development of protein drugs and other pharmaceuticals. He has made major contributions in basic science as well as in applied biotechnology and is currently president and CEO of a groundbreaking biotech company, Exelixis.

Mark Schiffman, chief, Interdisciplinary Studies Section, Environmental Epidemiology Branch. Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health.
    At Hopkins: Postdoctoral fellow in the Department of Epidemiology, 1983-84. Nominated by Keerti V. Shah and Kenrad E. Nelson, Bloomberg School of Public Health.
    Mark Schiffman has made major contributions in the field of human papillomaviruses, or HPV, and cancer of the cervix. He played a key role in establishing the link between the HPV infection and cervical cancer and now heads an effort to evaluate a candidate vaccine for the prevention of cervical neoplasia.

Huntington Sheldon, retired Strathcona Professor of Pathology, McGill University.
    At Hopkins: Postdoctoral fellow in the Department of Pathology, 1956-59. Nominated by Richard S. Ross, School of Medicine.
    As professor of pathology at McGill University for many years, Huntington Sheldon is known for his innovative research, which combined electron microscopy and histochemistry and that led to the discovery of extracellular localization of alkaline phosphatase. At McGill, he also was well known as a teacher, and his autopsy conference was very popular with medical students. Sheldon published widely, including a textbook of pathology for health professionals that is in its 12th edition.

Vernon T. Tolo, chairman, Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Children's Hospital of Los Angeles.
    At Hopkins: Postdoctoral fellow in the Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, 1971-75. Nominated by F.J. Frassica, School of Medicine.
    As chairman of the Department of Orthopedic Surgery at the Children's Hospital in Los Angeles, Vernon Tolo has made major contributions to pediatric orthopedic spine surgery, pediatric skeletal trauma and professional development. His work on spinal stenosis in achondroplasia, and other spinal problems, has made treatment safer and more effective. He has built an outstanding academic department whose work has advanced the fields of trauma treatment, cerebral palsy and children's bone tumors.

The following two scholars who were inducted in absentia in 2000 (see 2000 listing) also will participate in the ceremony.

Tom Ryan DeMeester, professor of general and cardiothoracic surgery and chairman of the Department of Surgery, University of Southern California School of Medicine.

Wolfgang Kollmann, professor, Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of California, Davis.

2000

James G. Brasseur, professor of mechanical engineering and bioengineering, Department of Mechanical Engineering, The Pennsylvania State University.
At Hopkins: postdoctoral fellow, Department of Chemical Engineering, 1983-85. Nominated by Daniel Q. Naiman.
   As a professor of engineering and bioengineering, James Brasseur has achieved an international reputation for excellence in two disparate areas of research: turbulence physics and the physiology and mechanics of the gastrointestinal tract. His work on turbulence has been recognized by many, including the Isaac Newton Institute for Mathematical Sciences at Cambridge University. He is an engineer whose research into the motility of the pharynx, upper sphincter, esophagus and stomach is well-known in the medical community.

Tom R. Ryan DeMeester, professor of general and cardiothoracic surgery and chairman of the Department of Surgery, University of Southern California School of Medicine.
At Hopkins: Postdoctoral research fellow in transplantation biology, 1967-68. Nominated by John L. Cameron.
   Tom DeMeester has made more contributions to the understanding of the pathophysiology of esophageal disease and the diagnosis and treatment of both benign and malignant esophageal diseases than any other surgeon in the world. An expert on gastroesophageal reflux disease, Barrett's esophagus and Barrett's adenocarcinoma, DeMeester has been in the forefront of a small group of individuals who have contributed both clinical and laboratory information concerning the evolution of Barrett's esophagus and Barrett's adenocarcinoma.

Malcolm Paul Weston Godfrey, retired chairman of the United Medical and Dental Schools Council, Guy's and St. Thomas' Hospitals and Medical Schools (now Wing's College), London.
At Hopkins: Fellow in medicine, 1957-59. Nominated by Richard S. Ross.
   Malcolm Paul Weston Godfrey has had a distinguished career in the United Kingdom, serving in a number of high-level positions administering health care and research. He served as dean of the Royal Postgraduate Medical School at the University of London and also became chair of the Council of Governors of United Medical and Dental Schools of Guy's and St. Thomas' Hospitals. Throughout his career he has been interested in the development of the National Health Service and the partnership between service and medical and dental teaching and research, and he has contributed to the evolution of the Health Service and to the integration of academic medicine with that organization.

David Karzon, emeritus professor of pediatrics, microbiology and immunology, Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Pediatrics, Vanderbilt University Medical Center.
At Hopkins: Postdoctoral fellow in virology, Department of Medicine, 1948-50. Nominated by Noel R. Rose.
   David Karzon achieved widespread fame for his seminal studies on the Newcastle disease virus in chickens and the canine distemper virus. He worked on safely introducing the polio vaccine and was one of the first to identify so-called orphan viruses known as the ECHO group. He remains a national authority on viral immunology and vaccinology and is often consulted on issues of vaccine safety.

David W. Kennedy, professor and chairman, Department of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, University of Pennsylvania Medical Center.
At Hopkins: Assistant resident in surgery, assistant resident in otolaryngology and chief resident in otolaryngology, 1973-78. Nominated by Charles W. Cummings.
   David Kennedy is regarded as the premiere rhinologist in the United States today. His surgical talents are internationally recognized and, as head of the Department of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery at the University of Pennsylvania, he has led that department to the top echelon of academic medical centers.

Wolfgang Kollmann, professor, Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of California, Davis.
At Hopkins: Fellow in the Department of Mechanics and Materials Science, 1973-75. Nominated by Marc Parlange and Charles Meneveau.
   Recognized as a world leader in the study of turbulence, turbulent combustion and numerical simulation of turbulent flows, Wolfgang Kollmann has over the past 25 years advanced the state of the art in the solution of important engineering problems associated with complex flows. His work is used by leading government and private laboratories and is taught today in advanced graduate courses in universities worldwide.

Louis Lasagna, dean of the Sackler School of Graduate Biomedical Sciences; dean for scientific affairs, School of Medicine; professor of psychiatry (clinical pharmacology); professor of pharmacology; chairman of the board and adjunct scholar, Tufts Center for the Study of Drug Development, Tufts University.
At Hopkins: Assistant and instructor in the Department of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics, School of Medicine, 1950-52. Nominated by Reubin Andres.
   Louis Lasagna is generally acknowledged as the father of clinical pharmacology. His 1954 paper on the placebo response was selected by the editors of The Lancet as one of the landmark papers of the 20th-century in the canon of Western medicine. Another paper written early in his career, on the controlled clinical trial, also has become a classic. His remarkable career has delved deeply into areas of clinical trial methodology, analgesics and hypnotics as well as the placebo effect, and his work has made major contributions to medical education.

Bennie I. Osburn, dean of the School of Veterinary Medicine, University of California, Davis.
At Hopkins: Special research fellow in ophthalmology, 1968-70. Nominated by Arthur M. Silverstein.
   With the publication of more than 260 scientific publications since his time at Hopkins, Bennie Osburn has made many significant contributions to both veterinary and human pathology and medicine, especially in the pathogenesis of viral diseases, in the comparative pathology in infection and the immune response. His work on veterinary pathology and veterinary immunology has earned him an international reputation. He also has had a distinguished career in administration, serving as dean of the Davis School of Veterinary Medicine at the University of California since 1996.

Hanna Reisler, professor of chemistry, Department of Chemistry, University of Southern California.
At Hopkins: IAEA research fellow, Chemistry Department, 1972-74. Nominated by Paul J. Dagdigian.
   Hanna Reisler's seminal contributions are in the area of photo-initiated reaction dynamics of small molecules in the gas phase. Her approach of devising novel and incisive experiments to examine fundamental concepts that can be modeled by high-level theoretical treatments has had a major impact on the field of molecular photodissociation dynamics. Her work on quantum state resolved unimolecular decomposition dynamics has provided data for rigorous tests of statistical theories under conditions where the initial state and excess energy are well-defined. In influential work, she has tied together molecular quantum fluctuation phenomena and statistical theories by establishing the fundamental relationship between molecular interferences and the random fluctuations observed in nuclear reactions.

Harry Schachter, professor, Department of Biochemistry, Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, Canada.
At Hopkins: Postdoctoral fellow in the Department of Biology, 1966-68. Nominated by Saul Roseman.
   Harry Schachter has made trail-blazing contributions in the field of glycobiology, one of the most difficult fields of modern biochemistry and cell biology. His work looks at the complex relationships of the carbohydrates and proteins that coat cell surfaces and allow living cells to recognize and communicate with one another.

Zohair Ahmed Sebai, chairman, Arab Development Institute, Al-Khobar, Saudi Arabia.
At Hopkins: Doctorate, School of Public Health, 1969. Nominated by Haroutune K. Armenian.
   Zohair Ahmed Sebai has made extraordinary contributions to the development of modern, effective public health programs in Saudi Arabia. His efforts were critical to the establishment of departments of community medicine and to adoption of nontraditional approaches to medical education. As a leading public health official, he effectively used the mass media to educate the public on public health issues, and he has helped shape public health policy at the highest levels of his government.

Craig Robert Smith, president and chief executive officer of Guilford Pharmaceuticals, Baltimore.
At Hopkins: Fellow in internal medicine, 1972-75. Nominated by Michael J. Klag.
   After completing his medical training at Hopkins, Craig Smith served as assistant chief of the Osler Medical Service and subsequently was chief of the Division of General Internal Medicine. As co-founder and director of Guilford Pharmaceuticals, Smith has helped guide the company in researching and developing a number of important new medical treatments for life-threatening diseases, advancing medical science and building Guilford Pharmaceuticals into a 200-employee business with $300 million in market capitalization.

Ronald E. Smith, Warren Professor and director of the Estelle Doheny Eye Institute and Department of Ophthalmology, University of Southern California School of Medicine.
At Hopkins: Intern, School of Medicine; resident and chief resident, Wilmer Ophthalmological Institute, 1967-73. Nominated by Morton F. Goldberg.
   Ronald Smith's numerous contributions to our understanding of ocular inflammation have made him a clinician and scientist of international repute in the field of ophthalmology. His expertise extends to the medical and surgical management of corneal and external diseases of the eyes. He has been an important educator and proven leader in American ophthalmology, having served as president of the American Academy of Ophthalmology and chairman of the American Board of Ophthalmology.

Hiroshi Tomoda, director of the Institute for Biological Function, the Kitasato Institute, Tokyo.
At Hopkins: Postdoctoral fellow, Department of Biology and the Kennedy Institute, 1987-89. Nominated by Yuan C. Lee.
   Hiroshi Tomoda's lifelong passion for isolating biomedically useful microbial products has led him to discover compounds that promise to open new horizons in solving problems of arteriosclerosis and even HIV infection, as well as compounds that are effective in lowering cholesterol levels. Holder of more than 20 patents on compounds, Tomoda not only has produced practical products but provided insights into understanding enzyme mechanisms.

Sharon Anne Whelan Weiss, professor and vice chair of the Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, Emory University Hospital.
At Hopkins: Intern, resident and chief resident, 1971-75. Nominated by Fred Sanfilippo.
   Sharon Anne Whelan Weiss is a leading authority in the field of surgical pathology. As an investigator and diagnostic pathologist, she has helped define the pathologic characteristics of numerous diseases, especially soft tissue tumors, and is widely sought for her diagnostic expertise. Weiss also is a noted educator and academic leader, having served on the editorial boards of the American Journal of Surgical Pathology and the Journal of Clinical Pathology and as president of the U.S.-Canadian Academy of Pathology.

1999

Kenneth I. Berns, interim vice president for health affairs and dean of the College of Medicine, University of Florida; postdoctoral experience, Department of Molecular Biology and Genetics (formerly Department of Microbiology), School of Medicine, 1966-67; nominated by Thomas J. Kelly Jr.
   Kenneth Berns has devoted most of his scientific research career to the study of the molecular basis of replication of the human parvovirus, adeno-associated virus. He has been a major contributor to our knowledge concerning the ability of AAV to establish latent infections in human cells and to be reactivated by adenovirus infection. His work was instrumental in providing the basis for the current interest in the use of this virus as a vector for gene therapy. He has served as president of the American Society for Virology and the American Society of Microbiology and is a member of the National Academy of Sciences.

George A. Bray, executive director and professor, Pennington Biomedical Research Center, Baton Rouge, La.; postdoctoral experience, Department of Medicine, School of Medicine, 1957-58; nominated by Simeon Margolis.
   George Bray's interest in obesity began with a question about the biological basis for inherited obesity. Using as models genetically obese mice and rats available when he was a fellow and faculty member at Tufts, he began a series of animal studies that have continued for 35 years. He has examined the effects of food restriction, dietary composition, insulin resistance and the administration of thyroid hormone, cholecystokinin and various anorectic drugs in rats obese due to genetic factors or hypothalamic lesions. His laboratory studies have also shown that dietary fat intake can be selectively regulated either by a pancreatic peptide (enterostatin) or by serotonin release in the brain. The results of these studies have provided an understanding that one important cause of obesity is defects in the feedback system that regulates food intake. He then used the insights gained from these animal experiments to study patients with obesity in the clinic. Findings regarding the role of monoamines in controlling food intake have contributed to his studies on the role of drugs that modulate neurotransmitters as possible treatments for obesity. He is the lead author on the multicenter study of subutramine, a drug that has just been approved for the treatment of obesity in the United States.

Robert M. Chanock, chief of the Laboratory of Infectious Diseases, Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health; postdoctoral experience, Department of Epidemiology, School of Public Health, 1956-57; nominated by Diane E. Griffin.
   Robert Chanock has had a career committed to the discovery of the etiology of many respiratory diseases and to developing vaccines for virus diseases of children and adults. He was responsible for the initial isolations of many respiratory viruses, e.g., respiratory syncytial virus, parainfluenza virus, corona viruses and a number of strains of rhinovirus. He also was the first to isolate and characterize a new type of infectious agent, mycoplasma. He defined most of what we know about the virologic and epidemiologic characteristics and the clinical spectrum of these infections. As chief of the Laboratory of Infectious Diseases at the NIAID, he currently leads the largest U.S. program for developing new vaccines for important virus diseases of humans. He has trained many of the leaders in human virology. He was elected to the National Academy of Sciences in 1973.

Michael J. Dunn, professor of medicine, dean and executive vice president, Medical College of Wisconsin; postdoctoral experience, Department of Medicine, School of Medicine, 1962-65; nominated by W. Gordon Walker.
   Michael Dunn's early classic description of experimental magnesium depletion in the human and subsequent studies of erythrocyte ion transport that clarified previously disparate views of sodium transport across the red blood cell membrane are recognized as outstanding research contributions. His most significant and sustained research on the role of prostaglandins in modulating renal function has provided new insights into the endocrine regulation of kidney function in health and disease. His studies of the renal toxicity of widely used non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agents have provided both clinical guidance and new insights into the basic physiology of the renal circulation.

Gerald A.M. Finerman, chairman, Department of Orthopaedics, University of California-Los Angeles; postdoctoral experience, Department of Orthopaedics, School of Medicine, 1966-69; nominated by John P. Kostuik.
   Gerald Finerman received his medical degree at Johns Hopkins and following his residency here was appointed an assistant professor in the Department of Orthopaedic Surgery at Johns Hopkins. With Lee Riley Jr., he initiated the total hip service at Johns Hopkins. At UCLA, which he joined in 1971, he specializes in sports medicine joint replacement. He has been in charge of the sports medicine program for the Department of Intercollegiate Athletics and was chief medical officer for the UCLA village in the 1984 Olympic games. He recently was awarded a large grant from NIH to evaluate kinematics of the cruciate ligaments of the knee.

Mark T. Keating, professor of medicine and of human genetics and HHMI investigator, Eccles Institute of Human Genetics, University of Utah; postdoctoral experience, Department of Medicine, School of Medicine, 1980-83; nominated by Victor A. McKusick.
   Mark Keating, who did his residency training on the Osler Medical Service of The Johns Hopkins Hospital, is a pioneer in molecular cardiology. Starting in 1991 and using methods of map-based gene discovery, he and his colleagues at the University of Utah characterized the genes mutant in four forms of the long QT syndrome, a cause of cardiac arrhythmia and sudden death. In 1993, he and his students showed that the gene for elastin is mutated or deleted in cases of the aortic malformation called supravalvar aortic stenosis. They went on to show that the elastin gene and neighboring genes are deleted in about 90 percent of patients with Williams syndrome, a developmental abnormality that has supravalvar aortic stenosis as one feature. Thus, the studies of Keating demonstrated that elastin is essential to arterial morphogenesis. His studies of the several forms of long QT syndrome revealed new information about the function of potassium ion channels in the heart and provided DNA diagnosis in family members at risk for sudden death.

David T. Kelly, Scandrett Professor of Cardiology and director, Hallstrom Institute of Cardiology, Royal Prince Alfred Hospital, Camperdown, Australia; postdoctoral experience, Department of Medicine, Division of Cardiology, 1969-76; nominated by Richard S. Ross.
   David Kelly received medical and cardiology training in New Zealand and held junior faculty posts in London and Cape Town before coming in 1969 to Johns Hopkins, where he was served on the faculty until 1976. While at Hopkins, Kelly was involved in the development of radio nucleotide imaging of the heart. When he returned to Australia, he established the Department of Nuclear Medicine at the University of Sydney. He has been a pioneer in cardiovascular pharmacology and in the use of vasodilators in myocardial infarction. More recently, his interests have been directed toward the epidemiology of coronary disease, and he was invited to give the Paul Dudley White International Lecture at the 1996 Annual Scientific Session of the American Heart Association. Kelly has been president of the International Society and the Federation of Cardiology and will be president of the 14th World Congress of Cardiology, to be held in Sydney in the year 2002.

Jon C. Liebman, professor emeritus, Department of Civil Engineering, School of Engineering, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign; postdoctoral experience, Department of Geography and Environmental Engineering (formerly Department of Environmental Engineering Sciences), School of Engineering, 1965-72; nominated by Charles ReVelle and M. Gordon Wolman.
   Jon Liebman began his academic career on the faculty at Hopkins, where he established one of the nation's first research programs in environmental systems engineering and provided the university's first course in scientific computing. At the University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign, he headed the Civil Engineering Department, one of the largest in the country. Liebman's pioneering research has been in the area of environmental systems analysis, a field that blends the tools of operations research with the practical problems of environmental management. In particular, he has done path-breaking research in applications of mathematical modeling and optimization to the regional management of water quality; his seminal dynamic programming work led to extensive follow-on research on this important problem. He established the nation's first research program that focused on optimal methods for solid waste management. With his students, he studies the complex mathematical problems associated with collection, routing, transfer station siting and landfill siting in order to determine cost-efficient regional solid waste-disposal systems. He has also published extensively on optimal sewer system design and on the design of water distribution systems.

Paul Meier, Howard Levene Professor, Department of Statistics, Columbia University; postdoctoral experience, Department of Biostatistics, School of Public Health, 1952-57; nominated by Scott Zeger.
   In 1958, Paul Meier published with E.L. Kaplan a paper in the Journal of the American Statistical Association titled "Nonparametric Estimation from Incomplete Observations" that introduced the now famous Kaplan-Meier estimate of the survival function, which populates every major medical and public health journal throughout the world. With the Cox proportional hazards model, the Kaplan-Meier estimate of a survival function is perhaps the most commonly used statistical method in clinical research. Meier had started this seminal work as a graduate student at Princeton and completed it as a faculty member in the Hopkins Department of Biostatistics. With this single paper, Meier established himself as the leading biostatistician of his day. He went on to a distinguished career, serving for more than 30 years as professor of statistics at the University of Chicago, during which time he became the leading American expert in the design, conduct and analysis of data from clinical trials.

Nicholas Muzyczka, professor, Department of Molecular Genetics and Microbiology, University of Florida Health Science Center; postdoctoral experience, Department of Molecular Biology and Genetics (formerly Department of Microbiology), School of Medicine, 1974-77; nominated by Maurice J. Bessman.
   Nicholas Muzyczka's doctoral thesis from the Hopkins Department of Biology on bacterial viruses was seminal to our understanding of the biochemical basis of spontaneous mutations. Later, as a postdoctoral fellow in Daniel Nathan's laboratory, Muzyczka began his work with animal viruses that has made him a leader in the area of gene therapy, using adeno-associated virus as the vector for replacing defective genes. His fundamental studies on viral replication have been instrumental in advancing the technology of gene replacement in the treatment of human disease.

Carol Wolf Runyan, professor, Department of Health Behavior and Health Education, and director, University of North Carolina Injury Prevention Research Center, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill; postdoctoral experience, Department of Epidemiology, School of Public Health, 1985-86; nominated by Susan P. Baker.
   Carol Runyan's achievements and leadership in injury control have placed her at the forefront of this critical field. Shortly after completing her postdoctoral fellowship in epidemiology at the School of Public Health, she was appointed associate director and then director of the Injury Prevention Research Center at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. Runyan's seminal research on adolescent and occupational injuries was accomplished during a period when both areas lacked good epidemiological work. Her papers on injuries to women have called attention to the underrecognized fact that injuries are the major cause of death among women for the first several decades of life. Her research is now making important contributions to the problem of violence against women.

Olive Shisana, executive director, Family and Health Services, World Health Organization; postdoctoral experience, Department of Health Policy and Management (formerly Department of Behavior Sciences), School of Public Health, 1981-84; nominated by David D. Celentano and Richard Morrow Jr.
   Olive Shisana, who in the mid-1970s fled South Africa because of anticipated arrest for her active anti-apartheid activities, has led the extraordinary transformation of that country's apartheid separate and unequal hospital-based health systems through to an integrated, equitable district-based primary health care-oriented system. After obtaining a master's degree from Loyola College in Baltimore and a ScD from the Department of Behavioral Sciences at Johns Hopkins, she joined the Department of Human Services, District of Columbia, where, from 1986 to 1991, she served as chief statistical adviser and then chief of research and statistics.
   With the revolutionary political shifts in South Africa that would allow her expertise to be put to good use in rebuilding her homeland, she returned in 1991 to join the South African Medical Research Council.
   While with the MRC she was seconded to the University of the Western Cape to develop in parallel with the University of the Transvaal the first school of public health in South Africa. She became technical adviser to the African National Congress on Provincial Restructuring of the Administrations, Civil Service Restructuring and Affirmative Action and was instrumental in radically redrawing boundaries for the provinces and districts, which was fundamental to the drive for equitable social services. When the new Government of National Unity took over, she was appointed director general of the South African Department of Health in 1995, carrying through the full transformation of the previously inequitable, highly fractionated, racially structured health system in the face of unrelenting opposition by the incumbent members of the previous health establishment. Largely because of her courageous and compelling management of the health system of South Africa, she was one of the first people selected by Gro Brundtland, the new director-general of the World Health Organization, to join her inner cabinet, as executive director of Family and Health Services.

David B. Skinner, president and CEO, the New York Presbyterian Hospital and New York Presbyterian Healthcare System; postdoctoral experience, Department of Surgery, School of Medicine, 1968-72; nominated by John L. Cameron.
   David Skinner is a general thoracic surgeon whose first faculty appointment was in 1968 as an assistant professor in the Department of Medicine, School of Medicine, where he later was promoted to professor. His major interests were esophageal surgery, pulmonary surgery and support of the failing heart. He left Hopkins after five years to become the Dallas B. Phemister Professor of Surgery and chairman of the department at the University of Chicago. When he became president of New York Hospital in 1987, he was recognized as one of the outstanding esophageal surgeons in the world. Under his leadership, New York Hospital has gone from losing a million dollars a week to being a very successful institution, which recently combined with Columbia Presbyterian Hospital, with Skinner as the CEO of the combined New York Presbyterian Hospital and New York Presbyterian Healthcare System.

Eric Jeffrey Topol, chairman, Department of Cardiology, and director, Joseph J. Jacob Center for Thrombosis and Vascular Biology, Cleveland Clinic Foundation; postdoctoral experience, Department of Medicine, Division of Cardiology, 1982-85; nominated by Kenneth L. Baughman.
   While a fellow at Hopkins, Eric Topol made original observations on the influence of bypass graft surgery on stunned myocardium and the early use of thrombolytic agents. Following his fellowship, Topol was recruited by the University of Michigan School of Medicine, where he rose to the rank of professor in 1991 and was the director of the cardiac catheterization laboratory. He was subsequently appointed chairman of the Department of Cardiology at the Cleveland Clinic Foundation, where he also directs the Joseph J. Jacobs Center for Thrombosis and Vascular Biology. He has organized a worldwide network of cardiovascular investigators who have completed a multitude of randomized, prospective placebo-controlled trials, which have dramatically forwarded our knowledge of evidence-based cardiology. In the area of cardiovascular diseases, Topol has authored or co-authored 528 original manuscripts, 15 books, 99 book chapters, 40 letters to the editor, 406 abstracts and 54 non-peer review articles.

Gayle Woodson, professor, Department of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, University of Tennessee; postdoctoral experience, Department of General Surgery, School of Medicine, 1976-78; nominated by Charles W. Cummings.
   Gayle Woodson attended medical school at Baylor and did her surgical internship and first year of resident surgical training at Hopkins, prior to returning to Baylor in the otolaryngological head and neck surgical training program. She completed a fellowship in laryngeal physiology at the Institute of Laryngology and Otology in London and became certified by both the Royal College of Surgeons of Canada and the American Board of Otolaryngology. She served on the medical faculties of Baylor College and the University of California at San Diego before moving to the University of Tennessee. Woodson serves as a director of the American Board of Otolaryngology and is on the residency review committee for otolaryngology. She is currently president of the Society of University Otolaryngologists and the Advisory Council for Otolaryngology for the American College of Surgeons. Woodson serves on four editorial boards of peer-reviewed journals and has authored 85 publications and book chapters.

1998

J. Carl Barrett
Research Triangle Park, North Carolina

Dr. Barrett's research is centered on the relationship between aging and cancer, the genes involved in cellular senescence and apoptosis, the role of BRCA-1 as a tumor suppressor gene, and the function of KAI-1, a newly cloned prostate cancer metastasis suppressor gene. A chairperson, organizer, or keynote speaker at numerous professional conferences and symposia, he is the scientific director of the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, associate editor of Cancer Research, and editor-in-chief of Molecular Carcinogenesis.

Harvey W. Bender Jr.
Nashville, Tennessee

Dr. Bender's skills as an outstanding pediatric cardiac surgeon earned him wide recognition during his 11 years at Hopkins and his present tenure at Vanderbilt University, where he is professor of surgery and chairman of the Department of Cardiothoracic Surgery. He is a noted expert on all pediatric cardiac anomalies, and he is particularly well-known for his surgical skills in managing complete transposition of the great vessels.

Tibor Borsos
Chevy Chase, Maryland

Dr. Borsos' career can be divided into three major areas: research related to the role of Rous sarcoma virus in the pathogenesis of cancer; a lifelong interest in complement and complement-mediated lysis; and pioneering investigations on the immunology of tumors, studies that led to the first clinical trial of BCG in the treatment of bladder cancer. He spent most of his career at the National Cancer Institute. At the time of his retirement in 1988, he was chief of the Laboratory of Immuno-biology. Until 1994, he served as research professor of pathology at the Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences.

Lonnie S. Burnett
Nashville, Tennessee

Dr. Burnett is well-recognized for his contributions in gynecological oncology. He is beloved at Johns Hopkins as a major force in the School of Medicine's alumni organization and especially in launching the Howard Kelly Society for the Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics. As a gynecologic oncologist, he has published extensively on the use of chemotherapeutic agents for ovarian cancer and is the co-author of the 11th edition of the textbook Novak's Gynecology, which originated at Johns Hopkins. Dr. Burnett has received numerous awards, including the H. Graham Wait Jr. Memorial President's Award in recognition of outstanding research and education contributions in the field of gynecology/ obstetrics.

Lanny Garth Close
New York, New York

Dr. Close is a leader in academic otolaryngology-head and neck surgery. After serving on the faculty of the University of Texas Medical School, in Houston, and the Southwestern Medical School, in Dallas, he joined the faculty at Columbia University, where he is the Howard Smith Professor and chairman of the Department of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery. He serves on the editorial review boards of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, The Laryngoscope, and Cancer.

Claes H. Dohlman
Boston, Massachusetts Dr. Dohlman's major contributions to medicine have been in the field of diseases, physiology, and biochemistry of the cornea and in experimental pathology of the cornea. He developed and was the director of the corneal service of the Massachusetts Eye and Ear Infirmary, at which many of the current experts in the field received their training. The recipient of numerous awards, including the Friedenwald, Bjerrum, and Proctor lectureships, he is currently adjunct senior scientist at the Eye Research Institute, in Weston, Massachusetts.

Ari Gafni
Ann Arbor, Michigan

Dr. Gafni has made major contributions to the understanding of aging. He not only has studied protein changes in the elderly and the comparison of proteins in old and young cells, but also he and his colleagues developed many of the specialized spectroscopic techniques used in these studies. Currently a professor in the Department of Biological Chemistry at the University of Michigan, he has held a U.S. State Department training fellowship and the Glasberg Career Development Chair in Physical Biochemistry. Recipient of the Kellogg Presidential Initiative Award, he also is a fellow of the Gerontological Society of America.

Andre Goffeau
Louvain-la-Neuve, Belgium

Dr. Goffeau has had a very productive career, highlighted by a number of important discoveries and accomplishments in the field of genetics. Among his often pioneering work, he led the worldwide team that recently completed the entire sequence of the yeast genome. A major contributor to biotechnology programs in Europe and an organizer of several scientific conferences, he is a Professor Extraordinaire at the Universit E9 Catholique de Louvain in Belgium.

Jack B.L. Howell
Southampton, United Kingdom

Dr. Howell has made outstanding contributions leading to a greater understanding of the control of breathing in health and disease and the mechanism of breathlessness. His clinical work was dominated by the management of asthma, chronic bronchitis, and emphysema. Currently, he is a professor emeritus of medicine at the University of Southampton, chairman of the Southampton and Southwest Hampshire Health Authority, and chairman of the Board of Scunce and Education of the British Medical Association.

Trevor Martin Penning
Philadelphia, Pennsylvania

Dr. Penning's research on the enzymology of steroid hormones has made him one of the premier investigators in the world in understanding the mechanism, structure, and specificity of the family of hydroxysteroid dehydrogenases. He has not only achieved scientific distinction as a world leader in the field of steroid biochemistry but also commands the respect of his colleagues as an excellent teacher and administrator. A professor of pharmacology, obstetrics and gynecology, and biochemistry and biophysics, he is the associate dean for postdoctoral research training at the University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine.

Bertram Pitt
Ann Arbor, Michigan

Dr. Pitt has spent his career investigating coronary circulation. With colleagues, he developed many methods that utilized radioactive substances for such studies, pioneering the application of the thallium scan for identification of ischemic areas in the myocardium. As professor of medicine and director of cardiology at the University of Michigan, he developed a strong research and training program. His accomplishments have been honored by membership in the American Physiological Society, the American Society of Clinical Investigation, and the Association of American Physicians.

Christine E. Seidman
Boston, Massachusetts

Dr. Seidman has made major contributions to the molecular approaches to understanding cardiac pathophysiology and the genetic approaches to understanding inherited human disorders. Work in her lab established the first genetic abnormality to explain hereditary hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. A professor of medicine at the Harvard Medical School, she was elected to Alpha Omega Alpha and received the American Heart Association Clinician Scientist and Established Investigatorship awards.

Klaus V. Toyka
Wurzburg, Germany

The seminal research that Dr. Toyka carried out while a postdoctoral fellow at Johns Hopkins, has shaped his career investigating the immunological basis of neurological disorders, including peripheral neuropathies, multiple sclerosis, and inflammatory myopathies. Recently involved in studies of genetically determined disorders, he brought the "Hopkins model" of research and clinical care to Germany when he assumed the chair of the Department of Neurology at the University of Wurzburg in Germany.

David C. U'Prichard
King of Prussia, Pennsylvania

Dr. U'Prichard's career has focused on pharmacology. He served as the senior vice president and scientific director for Nova Pharmaceuticals Corporation before being recruited by British Zeneca Group PLC, where he became the international research director in 1994. In 1997, he became president of research and development at SmithKline Beecham. In this position, he is responsible for the daily operations of the company's laboratories and nearly 5,000 preclinical development activities worldwide. He serves as an honorary professor at Glasgow University Institute of Biomedical & Life Sciences and holds adjunct teaching posts at the University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine and Northwestern University School of Medicine.

1997

Po-Ya Chang
Taipei, Taiwan, Republic of China

Dr. Chang was among the first to recognize the public health problems emerging in Taiwan due to rapid socioeconomic and demographic change. She initiated research in occupational health, focusing on workers' exposure to lead and has been a pioneer advocate for women's health. She has served as mayor of Chiayi City, population 300,000, and in 1990 was appointed to her present position as director-general of the newly created National Department of Health for Taiwan.

Mahlon R. DeLong
Atlanta, Georgia

Dr. DeLong's research in neurology has changed the way we think about and treat two major illnesses: Alzheimer's disease and Parkinson's. He was among the team that recognized the depletion of cholinergic neurons in the nucleus basalis in Alzheimer's patients and has led the profession to reconsider how the basal ganglia function in relation to the brain stem. A clinician-investigator par excellence, he is currently professor and chairman of Neurology at Emory University School of Medicine.

James K. Edzwald
Amherst, Massachusetts

Dr. Edzwald's research and teaching in environmental engineering, particularly in the area of water supply and water quality, have earned him wide recognition. Currently professor and head of the Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering at the University of Massachusetts, he has held positions at several universities, including Johns Hopkins, during his distinguished career. His work has garnered him professional prizes, as well as many consulting assignments; he recently served on an EPA panel concerning the New York City water supply.

Timothy S. Harrison
Hershey, Pennsylvania

A skilled surgeon and researcher, Dr. Harrison has made internationally recognized contributions in the field of endocrine surgery and has expanded our understanding of endocrine function, dysfunction, and neoplasms. He completed his residency in the Department of Surgery at the Johns Hopkins School of Medicine in 1956; after a distinguished career as both physician and mentor, he is now professor emeritus of surgery and physiology at the Milton S. Hershey Medical Center of the Pennsylvania State University.

David McKinnon Lawrence
Oakland, California

A graduate of the General Preventive Medicine Residency Program at the School of Hygiene and Public Health, Dr. Lawrence has developed innovative health-care delivery systems to meet the challenges of large populations. He was one of the first to advocate the use of physicians' assistants and is committed to preventive care. As chairman and chief executive officer, he has led the Kaiser Foundation Health Plan to consistently high- quality assurance evaluations.

Allen Sollie Lichter
Ann Arbor, Michigan

During his tenure as chairman, Dr. Lichter has led the Department of Radiation Oncology at the University of Michigan Medical School to become one of the premier departments in the country. He developed clinical trials to improve breast cancer treatment and has pioneered the use of three-dimensional methods for tumor diagnosis and treatment. Last year the New England Journal of Medicine honored his achievements by inviting him to author the journal's "Medical Progress" monograph on "Recent Advances in Radiation Oncology."

Gianni Marone
Naples, Italy

Dr. Marone is an internationally renowned figure in the world of clinical immunology and allergy and the recognized leader of the discipline in Italy. As a professor of medicine and the director of the Section of Clinical Immunology and Allergy at the University of Naples Federico II, he has trained a generation of young investigators in the field. Worldwide understanding of the pathogenesis of allergic disease has been enriched by his outstanding research and publications. Currently president of the Italian Society of Clinical Immunology and Allergy, he has served as consultant to the Ministry of Health in Rome and to the World Health Organization. He also has received numerous awards from the Italian government and European medical societies.

Lechaim Naggan
Beer Sheva, Israel

Dr. Naggan combines the talents of researcher and administrator. A physician epidemiologist, he has investigated clinical problems such as congenital malformation and viral hepatitis, but he has also studied health services, successfully evaluating, for example, the health needs of Bedouins, a group unaccustomed to Western models of health care. He has served as Israeli deputy surgeon general, and is currently vice president and dean for research and development at Ben-Gurion University of the Negev.

Jennifer R. Niebyl
Iowa City, Iowa

Dr. Niebyl's commitment to research, education, and clinical practice in obstetrics and gynecology is reflected in the variety of her accomplishments. Currently professor and head of medicine in that department at University of Iowa Hospitals and Clinics, she also co-edits two professional journals. In the classroom she appears not only as a fine teacher, but also as co-editor of a widely used obstetrics textbook. Her research continues to generate new articles and book chapters. She is a respected leader in obstetrics and gynecology today. Shin-Ichiro Nishimura Sapporo, Japan Dr. Nishimura's work in polymer chemistry and glyco- biology holds promise for new treatments of diseases such as influenza and AIDS; the work has produced a flurry of publications-more than 100 in nine years-and remarkable professional recognition. Since taking his Ph.D. in 1987, he has risen to become professor and director of the Division of Biological Science in the graduate school at Hokkaido University, as well as an editor of scientific journals and a member of the advisory boards of several scientific associations.

Robert G. Robinson
Iowa City, Iowa

By identifying the depressive disorder associated with stroke, Dr. Robinson has made a crucial contribution not only to neurology and psychiatry, but also to the treatment and rehabilitation of patients who suffer from stroke. His work has also helped us understand the cerebral mechanism behind affective disorder and its role in the depression and mania symptomatic of that disorder. These contributions have made Dr. Robinson a leader in American psychiatry.

Kenji Sunagawa
Osaka, Japan

From the time Dr. Sunagawa began his postdoctoral work at the School of Medicine in 1978, he has been breaking new ground in cardiovascular research. Beginning with work he did here, which helped define the dynamic relationship between the left ventricle and its artery, he and his research team have recently developed crucial insights into cardiovascular control systems. A book he co-authored has become the standard reference for understanding the pressure-volume approach to ventricular function.

Noriko Takahashi
Handa-City, Japan

Dr. Takahashi has made two important contributions in the field of glycobiology, both of which help scientists analyze the structure of carbohydrates in glycoconjugates. She discovered glycoamidase, an enzyme which has become an indispensable tool for studying glycoproteins, and she developed new chromatic methods for carbohydrate analysis. Dr. Takahashi is also distinguished in the history of Japan: she was the first woman graduate of Nagoya University (1951) and the first woman in Japan to obtain an engineering degree.

John E. Wennberg
Hanover, New Hampshire

In studying the way physicians work, Dr. Wennberg invented the concept of "small area variation," which demonstrated for the first time, and in a scientifically rigorous way, that equally capable physicians in adjacent geographic areas practice medicine very differently. He developed the analytical methods needed to form the core of a new field: practice variation. Studies in this field point the way toward better clinical guidance for physicians and more consistent communication with patients about treatment options.

Anne B. Young
Boston, Massachusetts

From the molecule to the clinic, Dr. Young has taken up major questions in the field of neurology. She produced a body of research which elucidates the role of excitatory neurotransmitter glutamate in brain function, and has been a key clinical investigator of Huntington's disease, helping identify the genetic abnormality that appears to cause it. At Harvard, Dr. Young is considered an extraordinary chair of neurology, having guided both research and clinical activities to new levels of achievement.

1996

Dr. Hugh F. Biller
New York, New York

Dr. Biller is internationally known as a leader in head and neck surgery. He pioneered and developed surgical procedures focused on the preservation of vocal function while successfully treating malignant disease involving the larynx. He served as chairman of the Department of Otolaryn- gology at Mount Sinai Medical Center in New York City until 1995. He is past president of the American Society for Head and Neck Surgery.

Dr. Peter G.J. Burney
London, England

Dr. Burney's position as chairman of the Respiratory Disease Committee of the International Union Against Tuberculosis and Lung Disease places him in the front ranks of epidemiologists worldwide. He has played a major role in the education of public health physicians and is a widely acknowledged expert and leader in the fight against chronic respiratory diseases. Dr. Burney has served on many national and international working groups, committees, and councils dealing with asthma and related diseases. He is also chair of the Department of Public Health Medicine at United Medical and Dental Schools of Guy's and St. Thomas Hospitals in London.

Dr. Roberto Casalbuoni
Fllorence, Italy

Dr. Casalbuoni is a leading researcher in the study of subatomic particles. He is chair of the Department of Physics at the University of Florence in Italy and has been published on a wide variety of topics related to the physics of elementary particles. Under his leadership, he and other theoretical physicists in Florence have developed a method of searching for new physical phenomena by analyzing data obtained when electrons and positrons collide at high energy levels.

Dr. C. Richard Conti
Gainesville, Florida

A leader in academic cardiology, Dr. Conti is a graduate of Johns Hopkins Medical School, the Osler Residency Program, and a Division of Cardiology fellow. He has had a distinguished career in research and training as director of cardiology at the University of Florida School of Medicine. His national status as a trailblazer in cardiology was recognized by his election to president of the American College of Cardiology in 1988.

Harold Gerard Donnelly
West Lafayette, Indiana

Dr. Donnelly is one of the world's pioneers in the basic linear equations associated with a Riemannian manifold, the heat equation and the wave equation. These equations have been studied for well over a century by physicists, engineers, and mathematicians looking for answers in acoustics, diffusion of heat, and the spectral analysis of light from a star. Dr. Donnelly has made breakthroughs in the analysis of the eigen- functions, introducing entirely new thoughts in the subject.

Dr. Thomas P. Duffy
New Haven, Connecticut

Dr. Duffy is one of the nation's leading academic hematologists and a renowned practitioner of the Oslerian school of patient-centered clinical care, teaching, and scholarship. His teaching and written scholarship have focused on the ways that doctors can learn directly from the patient to gain the insight needed both to understand the patient's problems and to offer the most appropriate intervention. This patient- centered approach has also led Dr. Duffy to write works that have enlightened the medical community's thinking about the many ethical issues that arise in the care of patients. Dr. Duffy has inspired a generation of students, house officers, and fellows to aspire to the highest ideals of the medical profession.

Dr. Linda S. Gottfredson
Newark, Delaware

Dr. Gottfredson, a professor of the Department of Educational Studies at the University of Delaware, is nationally known for her penetrating researches on vocational choice, the measurement of individual differences, and the bases of occupational stratification. Her 1981 treatise, "Circumscription and Compromise: A Developmental Theory of Occupational Aspirations," became an instant classic and stimulus for new research for the light it shed on how and why individuals enter the careers they do.

Dr. Lazar J. Greenfield
Ann Arbor, Michigan

Dr. Greenfield, chair of the Department of Surgery at University of Michigan, is clearly one of the leaders in American surgery. He was one of the last young cardiovascular surgeons trained at Hopkins by the famous Dr. Alfred Blalock. He has made many significant contributions in the field of cardiovascular surgery, perhaps most notably the development of the Greenfield vena caval filter. Prior to his position at Michigan, he was chairman of the Department of Surgery at the Medical College of Virginia for 13 years.

Dr. William H. Hartmann
Tampa, Florida

Dr. Hartmann is internationally recognized for his academic contributions in research, education, and service in pathology. As editor-in-chief of the Atlas of Tumor Pathology from 1975 to 1987, he established this series of volumes as the primary reference source throughout the world for the classification of tumors. Moreover, his own research, especially in thyroid and breast cancer, has had significant impact in the characterization of these tumors. As chair of pathology at Vander-bilt University from 1973 to 1987, he established his department as one of the leaders in the United States. He has served as executive vice president of the American Board of Pathology.

Dr. Fazle Hussain
Houston, Texas

Dr. Hussain is one of the world's leading experts in experimental fluid mechanics. He is particularly known for his extensive research and contributions in turbulent shear flows, jets, vortex dynamics, and related experimental methods. He has served as editor of several prominent journals and is a fellow of the American Society of Mechanical Engineering and the American Physical Society.

Dr. Kim Mo-Im
Seoul, Korea

Dr. Kim is the recipient of numerous national and international awards for her contributions to the field of nursing. She was elected to the Korean National Assembly from 1981 to 1985 and was instrumental in formulating legislation that enhanced the education and participation of nurses in health care in Korea. Internationally, Dr. Kim has served with the World Health Organization as a member of expert panels and advisory groups on nursing. Since 1994, she has been secretary-general of the Global Network of WHO Collaborating Centers for International Nursing and Midwifery Development.

Dr. Alexander H. Leighton
Halifax, Nova Scotia

Dr. Leighton is a pre-eminent American psychiatric epidemiologist and is internationally known for documenting community aspects of psychiatry. He initiated pioneering community studies in North America aimed at ascertaining the prevalence of mental illness in a normal population. His work led to numerous outstanding publications, including 15 books.

Dr. George L. Nemhauser
Atlanta, Georgia

Dr. Nemhauser is world-renowned in the field of mathematical operations research, particularly in the theory, advanced computational development, and applications of optimization. He served as president of the Mathematical Programming Society and the Operations Research Society of America. He has published widely in such diverse areas as antenna design, line balancing, capital budgeting, train scheduling, political dis-tricting, plant location and production planning.

Dr. David B. Thomas
Seattle, Washington

Dr. Thomas is a distinguished cancer epidemiologist and head of one of the leading programs in cancer epidemiology in the world. His research has focused on the risks of hormones and breast cancer, an issue of international importance because of the widespread use of hormones in oral contraceptives and for post-menopausal replacement therapy. Dr. Thomas has made broad contributions to our understanding of the causes of cancer in his role as director of the Cancer Surveillance System of western Washington, an innovative cancer registry that has been used for research and public health monitoring.

Dr. Lawrence L. Weed
Underhill, Vermont

Dr. Weed is known throughout the world as the originator of the problem-oriented medical record. His system has revolutionized the way medical information is recorded, stored, and transmitted, and has provided the foundation for the computerized medical record. His experience has spanned the spectrum from basic biomedical science at Yale to medical education in a community hospital in Bangor, Maine. He is currently professor emeritus at the University of Vermont, where he has been since 1964.

1995

Dr. Gabriel Alvarez
Madrid, Spain

Dr. Alvarez, professor in the Department of Theoretical Physics at the Universidad Complutense, is one of the brightest young scientists in Spain. In addition to contributions in quantum chemistry, mathematical physics and electron paramagnetic resonance, he has established a reputation in computer programming with his work on optical character recognition and the Spanish implementation of the NeXT operating system.

Dr. Frank C. Arnett, Jr.
Houston, Texas

Dr. Arnett is internationally recognized as a leader in the field of immunogenetics. His research of autoantibody responses in various rheumatic diseases has played a significant role in identifying immune response alleles in human chromosomes. Dr. Arnett is director of the Division of Rheumatology and a professor of internal medicine at the University of Texas-Houston Health Science Center.

Dr. Subhash Chandra Basu
Notre Dame, Indiana

Dr. Basu has pioneered study of the biosynthesis of complex carbohydrates called gangliosides. These compounds accumulate in large quantity in certain diseases, such as Tay-Sachs', and are also involved in intercellular communication. The pathway of synthesis of the gangliosides, developed largely by Dr. Basu, is of major interest to researchers. He is chairman of the Biochemistry, Biophysics, and Molecular Biology Program and a professor of chemistry and biochemistry at the University of Notre Dame.

Dr. Nicolaie D. Cristescu
Gainesville, Florida

Dr. Cristescu is a leading researcher in the fields of dynamic plasticity, rock mechanics, and metal forming. His 1967 book, Dynamic Plasticity, based on extensive theoretical analyses, helped established his international reputation. Dr. Cristescu served as president of the University of Bucharest from 1990 to 1992, and is a graduate research professor in the Department of Aerospace Engineering, Mechanics, and Engineering Science at the University of Florida.

Dr. Robert H. Fletcher
Boston, Massachusetts

Dr. Fletcher, professor of ambulatory care and prevention at the Harvard Medical School and Harvard Community Health Plan, is internationally recognized for his contributions to primary care. From 1990 to 1993, he served as editor of the Annals of Internal Medicine, shaping the editorial policy during a time of rapid changes in medicine and primary care. Dr. Fletcher is the former president of the Society of General Internal Medicine.

Dr. Ruth Gallily
Jerusalem, Israel

Dr. Gallily, professor of immunology at The Hebrew University - Hadassah Medical School Jerusalem and The Lauten-berg Center of General and Tumor Immunology, has extensively studied the role of macrophages, cells that help protect against infection. She developed an antimacrophage serum, which showed the critical role of macrophages in inflammation, transplantation immunity, and autoimmunity. Dr. Gallily documented the interaction of antibody and macrophage in promoting the toxicity and destructive nature of cells.

Dr. Mark Granovetter
Evanston, Illinois

Dr. Granovetter, an esteemed sociologist, has inspired fellow researchers with his scholarly work and compelling reasoning. His book, Getting a Job, is a classic in the field of social stratification, and his 1985 article, "Economic Action and Social Structure: The Problem on Embeddedness," reinvigorated economic sociology. Dr. Granovetter is director of the Program in Business Institutions within the Department of Sociology at Northwestern University.

Dr. Bevra H. Hahn
Los Angeles, California

Dr. Hahn-an outstanding researcher, clinician, and teacher-has made contributions to understanding the origins and development of a form of the skin disease lupus and to improving the treatment of patients with rheumatic diseases. She is chief of the Division of Rheumatology and a professor of medicine in the Department of Medicine at the University of California at Los Angeles School of Medicine.

Dr. Peter S. Harper
Cardiff, Wales

Dr. Harper is a renowned researcher of myotonic dystrophy, Huntington's chorea, and other hereditary neuromuscular diseases. He has applied the science of genetics to the delivery of effective and compassionate health care for birth defects and hereditary disorders. Dr. Harper is professor of medical genetics at the University of Wales College of Medicine, and consultant physician and medical geneticist at the University Hospital of Wales.

Dr. Charles R. Hatcher, Jr.
Atlanta, Georgia

Dr. Hatcher has had a distinguished career at Emory University. He established and developed the nationally renowned open heart surgery program at the Emory University School of Medicine, serving as professor of surgery and chief of cardiothoracic surgery. In 1976, he became the director of the Emory Clinic, and since 1984 has been the vice president for health affairs and the director of the Robert W. Woodruff Health Sciences Center.

Dr. Harrison Latta
Los Angeles, California

Dr. Latta is internationally recognized as a pathologist and academician. He is an authority on the kidney and a pioneer investigator of the structure of a small, intertwined mass of capillaries called glomerulus. His interest in electron microscopy led to the discovery of the glass knife technique for cutting ultrathin sections, a major contribution in the field. Dr. Latta is professor emeritus of pathology at the University of California at Los Angeles School of Medicine.

Dr. Marie Clare McCormick
Boston, Massachusetts

Dr. McCormick is an acclaimed researcher and policy analyst in maternal and child health services. Her interests are epidemiology of infant mortality and low birth weight, measurement of and factors associated with child health status, and evaluation of maternal and child health services. Dr. McCormick is professor and chair of the Department of Maternal and Child Health at the Harvard School of Public Health and professor of pediatrics at the Harvard Medical School.

Dr. Abraham M.Y. Nomura
Honolulu, Hawaii

Dr. Nomura, a researcher in cancer epidemiology, has focused on the relationship of diet and cancer, and on related methodological issues. He has studied the interaction of genetic factors and behavioral lifestyle patterns that Hawaii represents in its admixture of races and people. Dr. Nomura, director of the Japan-Hawaii Cancer Study at Kuakini Medical Center, is associate editor of the American Journal of Epidemiology and Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention.

Dr. Stephen J. Peroutka
Menlo Park, California

Dr. Peroutka, a molecular neuroscientist and neurologist, has made significant contributions with direct clinical impact. He was the first researcher to clarify the subtypes of receptors for the neurotransmitter serotonin, explaining the actions of anti-migraine and anti-nausea drugs. He is president and founder of Spectra Biomedical Inc., where genomic techniques are used to identify the causes and treatment of headache and psychiatric diseases.

Dr. Eijiro Satoyoshi
Tokyo, Japan

Dr. Satoyoshi is a distinguished clinician and investigator in the field of neurology. He conceived, developed and directed the Japanese National Institute of Neurosciences, which has been consolidated as the National Center of Neurology and Psychiatry. As president emeritus of this government institute, he continues to be involved in world-class research in a variety of areas of neuroscience.

1994

Dr. Hideyasu Aoyama
Okayama City, Japan

Dr. Aoyama is a pioneer in the field of occupational health and safety in Japan. He is chairman of the Department of Hygiene and Preventive Medicine at the Okayama University Medical School, the largest department of hygiene in Japan. Dr. Aoyama set up a fellowship training program for foreign physicians to train in Japan, and has been instrumental in developing the foundation for the first schools of public health in Japan.

Dr. William J. Catalona
St. Louis, Missouri

Dr. Catalona is a surgeon and one of the most respected urologic oncologists in the nation. He revolutionized the management of prostate cancer, making major contributions on the use of prostate specific antigen (PSA) for diagnosis. Before his findings were published, it was widely believed that PSA lacked sufficient specificity for this purpose.

Dr. Joseph T. Coyle
Belmont, Massachusetts

Dr. Coyle became a world leader in psychopharmacology while on the faculty of Hopkins, where he was chief of Child Psychiatry. He left Hopkins to become the first head of the Consolidated Department of Psychiatry at Harvard Medical School. He eventually made many contributions to the understanding of the mechanisms of Alzheimer's disease and Huntington's disease.

Dr. Ugo Fisch
Zurich, Switzerland

Dr. Fisch is a world-renowned neuro-otologist and skull base surgeon who has made numerous contributions to the basic science and clinical practice of otology. His refinements of certain surgical approaches became universally used.

Dr. Juan Martin Flavier
Manila, Philippines

Dr. Flavier, secretary of health for the Philippines, has worked to improve the health and welfare of millions of Filipinos living in rural areas. Through his immunization program, more than 1.5 million children have been immunized, and 85 percent of Filipino children younger than 5 have been immunized against polio, measles, diphtheria, pertussis, and tetanus.

Dr. Suzanne Wright Fletcher
Boston, Massachusetts

Dr. Fletcher, a professor of ambulatory care and prevention at Harvard Medical School, is a leading scholar in preventive medicine. She is former editor of the Annals of Internal Medicine, the premier journal in its field, and the Journal of General Internal Medicine. Dr. Fletcher was elected to the National Academy of Science's Institute of Medicine in 1987.

Dr. Judith G. Hall
Vancouver, British Columbia

Dr. Hall is chairwoman of the Department of Pediatrics at the University of British Columbia in Vancouver. She is a leader in the area of genetic syndromes and birth defects. Dr. Hall defined and named the disorder known as thrombocytopenia with absent radius, or TAR, in which children are born without the radius bone in the forearm. She has classified many forms of arthrogryposis, a type of birth defect resulting in stiff, unbendable joints in the arms and legs. Her work also has been instrumental in describing uniparental disomy, in which children inherit only the genes from one parent.

Dr. Timothy J. Hallman
Berkeley, California

Dr. Hallman is a leading physicist studying the properties of nuclear matter at very high densities. He developed an apparatus to find electron-positron pairs emitted from collisions of very heavy nuclei. His work was a forerunner of studies at Brookhaven National Laboratory.

Dr. Guillermina Jasso
New York, New York

Dr. Jasso has had a distinguished career as a special assistant to the director of the U.S. Immigration and Naturalization Service. Subsequently, she became research director of the U.S. Select Commission on Immigration and Refugee Policy. She is a specialist in mathematical sociology and in theories of distributive justice.

Dr. Willis C. Maddrey
Dallas, Texas

Dr. Maddrey, whose research interest is in various areas of liver disease, has made significant contributions related to chronic hepatitis and alcohol-induced liver disease. He has been honored for excellence in teaching and has served as president of the American College of Physicians. He was one of the founders of the American Liver Foundation and recently was elected a fellow of the Royal College of Physicians in London.

Dr. Dinakar Ramakrishnan
Pasadena, California

Dr. Ramakrishnan, a professor of mathematics at the California Institute of Technology, has made contributions to the general theory of Zeta functions. Of particular importance is his work on the zeta functions associated with modular surfaces and linear groups of symmetrics. He was appointed full professor eight years after he earned his Ph.D.

Dr. Felix Noah Rutledge*
Houston, Texas

Dr. Rutledge, a professor of gynecologic oncology at the University of Texas, was among the first to use culdoscopy as a gynecologic diagnostic tool and to recognize the pathologic features of atypical endometrial hyperplasia, which has subsequently been found to be a precursor of endometrial cancer.

Dr. John Anton Waldhausen
Hershey, Pennsylvania

Dr. Waldhausen has played a critical role in the development and growth of the Pennsylvania State University's Medical Center in Hershey. He has been chairman of the College of Medicine's Surgery Department since 1970 and has practiced cardiac surgery, with a special interest in pediatric cardiac surgery.

Dr. James Watt*
Dr. Watt was a retired assistant surgeon general for the U.S. Public Health Service. He founded the American Board of Preventive Medicine and served as chairman of the World Health Organization's executive committee. His research focused on tropical and infectious diseases. He encouraged international efforts to eradicate smallpox and control cholera.

1993

Dr. Romesh C. Batra
Rolla, Missouri

Dr. Batra's research has embraced the areas of fluid mechanics, elasticity, viscoelasticity, penetration mechanics, and adiabatic shear banding. For six consecutive years, he was honored by the University of Missouri with a Faculty Excellence Award in recognition of his superior performance in research, teaching, and service.

Dr. Myron F. Goodman
Los Angeles, California A recognized authority

on the biochemical basis of mutations, Dr. Goodman has developed a unique research program that has yielded original insights into the natural causes of errors in DNA replication. His models of error correction and prevention have provided a theoretical basis for an understanding of the molecular basis of genetic disease.

Dr. Morley D. Hollenberg
Calgary, Alberta, Canada

A leading figure in the field of peptide hormone research, Dr. Hollenberg's innovative and critical investigations of epidermal growth factor (urogastrone) and insulin have significantly advanced understanding of hormone- receptor interactions.

Dr. Edward Watson Hook
Charlottesville, Virginia

Dr. Hook's studies of the epidemiology, pathogenesis, and treatment of bacterial infections have advanced knowledge of the clinical manifestations of endocarditis and the mechanisms by which salmonella develop antibiotic resistance. His tenure as director of the Department of Medicine at the University of Virginia is among the longest on record in the United States.

Dr. Thomas S. Inui
Boston, Massachusetts

A leading example of the academic physician-scholar, Dr. Inui has been devoted to the application of the principles of community medicine in his everyday clinical and scholarly work. Among the issues with which he has been most concerned are the effectiveness of health services, patient-physician communication, and preventive care in clinical practice.

Dr. Martin Hume Johnson
Cambridge, England

An outstanding teacher, writer, and experimentalist, Dr. Johnson has made major contributions to the understanding of early mammalian development, including that of humans. His research approach to a rational study of early human development had important practical consequences for in vitro fertilization.

Dr. Baruch A. Kipnis
Haifa, Israel

Combining theoretical studies of land use and metropolitan development with studies of rural settlement and industrial concentration, Dr. Kipnis has made major contributions to research on spatial aspects of human settlements. He is founder and head of the Haifa and Galilee Research Institute, which is conducting research on geographic aspects of northern Israel and adjacent regions.

Dr. Edward R. Laws, Jr.
Charlottesville, Virginia

An expert in the management of pituitary tumors and gliomas, Dr. Laws' research has contributed significantly in the areas of neurooncology, histochemistry, cytochemistry, and experimental biology of brain tumors.

Dr. Gavril W. Pasternak
New York, New York

As one of the leading opiate basic researchers in the country, Dr. Pasternak's contributions have involved differentiating subtypes of opiate receptors that are differentially affected by drugs, leading to identification of agents that can provide analgesia with a lower incidence of side effects.

Dr. Timothy J. Pedley
Leeds, England

A leading authority in physiological fluid mechanics, Dr. Pedley has made numerous contributions to the dynamics of unsteady blood flow by bringing analytical and numerical techniques in fluid mechanics to bear on various physiological processes. His work has clarified many aspects of blood flow separation, instability and bifurcation.

Dr. Bernard Robaire
Montreal, Quebec, Canada

With research interests spanning basic studies of reproductive toxicology and fertility regulation, Dr. Robaire has made significant discoveries in the areas of regulation of the structure and function of the mammalian epididymis, the effects of toxic agents on fertility, and the regulation of the hypothalamo-pituitary- testicular axis in mammals.

Dr. Robert J. Ruben
New York, New York A pioneer in the f

ield of research on the development of the auditory system, Dr. Ruben is noted for ground-breaking studies on the organ culture of the mammalian inner ear and for important clinical contributions to the understanding of human communication as it relates to both hearing and speech.

Dr. George A. Silver
New Haven, Connecticut

As a leading figure in maternal and child health in the United States, Dr. Silver has served at virtually all levels of the health care system. He has been the source of provocative and stimulating ideas, questioning the basic tenets of the health care delivery system and providing innovative suggestions for new forms of organization and finance.

Dr. Jean Starobinski
Geneva, Switzerland

One of the most prominent scholars in the field of French studies, Dr. Starobinski's books and essays on the literature and intellectual history of the 17th, 18th, and 19th centuries have earned him great stature and influence in the fields of French studies, literary criticism, and psychoanalytic criticism.

Dr. Thomas Earl Starzl
Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania

A pre-eminent clinician-scientist, Dr. Starzl has made major contributions in kidney transplantation and was a pioneer in liver transplantation. He was also a pioneer in cluster transplants, the transplanting of several organs simultaneously into a patient.

Dr. Juzer M. Vasi
Bombay, India

An internationally recognized expert in the growth of silicon dioxide and in concomitant defect states that limit or determine device performance, Dr. Vasi has made major contributions to the field of microelectronics, including an understanding of electric breakdown of submicron thin films and solution of major problems in the breakdown and instability of insulators.

1992

Dr. Marvin B. Becker
Ann Arbor, Michigan

A distinguished historian, Dr. Becker has made outstanding contributions to Italian Renaissance history and, through the application of anthropological insights and methods, to the theory and methodology of history in general. In his seminal volumes entitled Florence in Transition, he depicted broad economic, social, and political structures and processes in early Renaissance Florence.

Dr. Anthony J. Bron
Oxford, England

Dr. Bron is an acknowledged world expert on corneal dystrophies and infections, cataract morphogenesis and pathogenesis, and other ocular diseases. He is only the second full professor of ophthalmology in Oxford University's long history. His work was recently recognized by a prize from the Alcon Research Institute, one of the highest international honors in investigative ophthalmology.

Dr. Lincoln C. Chen
Cambridge, Massachusetts

Dr. Chen has published numerous papers on his work in Bangladesh with the Ford Foundation that have added fundamental knowledge about the epidemiology and control of diarrheal diseases and about the interrelationships among malnutrition, morbidity, and mortality. A worldwide search led to his appointment as the first Taro Takemi Professor of International Health at Harvard University.

Dr. Mary Allen Engle
New York, New York

Dr. Engle's research at Cornell University and New York Hospital has contributed richly to the field of pediatric cardiology, with special application to the selection of children for cardiac surgery and follow-up after surgery. She holds the Stavros S. Niarchos Professorship of Pediatric Cardiology at Cornell University Medical College. In 1991, she received the institution's Maurice R. Greenberg Distinguished Service Award.

Dr. Melvin H. Epstein
Providence, Rhode Island

While on the neurosurgical faculty at The Johns Hopkins Hospital, Dr. Epstein carried out laboratory studies that have done much to increase the body of knowledge of the secretory process of human spinal fluid. His work delineating the second messenger of spinal fluid production in the choroid plexus is a classic paper in the field. He is now professor and chairman of neurosurgery at Brown University School of Medicine.

Dr. Thomas P. Fehlner
Notre Dame, Indiana

An internationally recognized authority on boron hydride chemistry, Dr. Fehl ner began his research in that field while he was a postdoctoral fellow at Johns Hopkins. He has lectured on the subject at universities across the world. In recent years, he has shifted his research emphasis to synthetic inorganic chemistry and continues his research as professor of chemistry at the University of Notre Dame.

Dr. John F. Foss
East Lansing, Michigan

Dr. Foss is a widely known experimentalist in fluid mechanics and has developed novel methods for the improvement of measurement of turbulent flows. He has also made major contributions to undergraduate mechanical engineering education and developed an excellent laboratory course in fluid dynamics at Michigan State University. His approach and specific exercises have been adopted by a number of other universities.

Dr. Stephen C. Joseph
Minneapolis, Minnesota

Dr. Joseph has a distinguished career as both a scholar and active investigator in the field of public health. Among other important contributions, his work has helped combat the AIDS epidemic in New York. He has served in numerous government posts, including that of deputy assistant administrator for the U.S. Agency for International Development. He is currently dean of the School of Public Health and a professor at the University of Minnesota.

Dr. James Roderick Jude
Miami, Florida

After training under Dr. Alfred Blalock, Dr. Jude continued the tradition of major advances in cardiovascular surgery and related areas, making especially important contributions to the development of closed chest cardiac massage and electrical defibrillation of the heart. In addition to a distinguished career in surgery, he is clinical professor of surgery at the University of Miami School of Medicine.

Dr. Otto F. Kernberg
White Plains, New York

An internationally recognized investigator and clinician in the field of psychiatry, Dr. Kernberg trained at Johns Hopkins with Dr. Jerome Frank and is currently associate chairman and medical director of New York Hospital Cornell Medical Center, Westchester Division. His work has earned him numerous awards, including, in 1990, the first Mary S. Sigourney Award for Distinguished Contributions in Psychoanalysis.

Dr. Kunio Okuda
Chiba, Japan

Dr. Okuda's interest in biochemistry was stimulated by work at Johns Hopkins on the physiological properties of vitamin B-12. His research resulted in several papers on the importance of this vitamin during pregnancy and on its interaction with factor present in gastric juices that is necessary for the absorption of the vitamin into the bloodstream. He is now professor emeritus at Chiba University Medical School.

Dr. Emmanuel T. Sarris
Xanthi, Greece

As a member of the European Science Foundation's Committee of Space Research, Dr. Sarris has played a leading role in planning the European space program. As professor of electrodynamics at the University of Thrace, he has greatly broadened the university's role in space science. He was recently appointed director of the Institute for Ionospheric and Space Physics at the Athens Observatory, the principal organization in Greece for space research.

Dr. Antonio Ramirez de Verger
Sevilla, Spain

Dr. de Verger's studies of classical authors have led to the publication of a number of outstanding scholarly works, including a critical edition of Ovid's Amores on which he began work while a visiting professor at Johns Hopkins. He has not only edited ancient authors, but also worked on late medieval texts that were of great importance for the voyages of discovery that ultimately led to the discovery of America.

Dr. Samuel S.C. Yen
La Jolla, California

An internationally known expert in neuroendocrinology, Dr. Yen is co-author of a text, Reproductive Endocrinology, which is considered a classic in its field and is now in its third edition. He is professor of reproductive medicine, director of the Division of Reproductive Endocrinology, and holder of the W.R. Persons Chair in Reproductive Medicine at the University of California at San Diego.

1991

Dr. James C. Allen
Charleston, South Carolina

A distinguished clinician and investigator, Dr. Allen made seminal observations as a postdoctoral fellow that led to the finding of the GM allotypes on immunoglobulin heavy chains. Later, in collaboration with Dr. Michael Apicella, he demonstrated the immunopathogenesis of pleural effusions in tuberculosis.

Dr. Camilla Persson Benbow
Ames, Iowa

A productive and creative investigator, Dr. Benbow received four Hopkins degrees, including a doctorate, by age 24 and was promoted to full professor at Iowa State at 33. She is widely published in educational development and psychology. Formerly a co- director of the Study of Mathematically Precocious Youth at Hopkins, she has gone on to direct the study's Iowa State location.

Dr. Morgan Berthrong
Colorado Springs, Colorado

Dr. Berthrong is widely known for his definitive studies of radiation injury. He is regarded as an expert diagnostic pathologist and an inspiring teacher. His list of publications includes entries in every decade from the 1940s to the 1990s.

Dr. David Grob
New York, New York

Dr. Grob, a medical educator and a researcher with a record of scholarship over nearly half a century, has long been interested in the physiology and pathophysiology of neuromuscular transmission and in the pathogenesis of myasthenia gravis. In 1982, his research in neuromuscular diseases won him the achievement award of the Myasthenia Gravis Foundation.

Dr. Lewis H. Kuller
Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania

Dr. Kuller is one of the nation's leaders in clinical and chronic disease epidemiology, and has applied epidemiological methods to a wide variety of public health and clinical problems. His publications play a significant role in bridging the gap between epidemiology and clinical medicine.

Dr. Michel F. Lechat
Brussels, Belgium

Dr. Lechat has served as president of the International Leprosy Association and the International Leprosy Union, and was also one of the first to suggest that epidemiologic principles could be applied to improving disaster preparedness and response. He has served as a World Health Organization consultant or adviser in two dozen nations.

Dr. George W. Mitchell, Jr.
San Antonio, Texas

Dr. Mitchell, an expert in gynecologic oncology and gynecological surgery, has set standards and policy at every level within the field of obstetrics and gynecology. His contributions have been recognized by the establishment of a chair in his name at Tufts University School of Medicine, where he is a former department chairman and now an emeritus professor.

Dr. Antonia C. Novello
Washington, D.C.

Dr. Novello, surgeon general of the U.S. Public Health Service, is the author or co-author of more than 75 articles and chapters on public health policy, nephrology, and pediatrics. She is an unflagging advocate of public health training and the need to attract more women and minorities into the field. She continues the tradition of using the office of surgeon general as a platform from which to make important contributions to public knowledge of health issues, including AIDS, smoking, and immunization.

Dr. Gary A. Prinz
Washington, D.C.

As a postdoctoral fellow, Dr. Prinz was the first to observe evidence for coupling between rare-earth ions in an insulating host crystal structure using high resolution spectroscopic measurements. At the Naval Research Laboratory, he was the first to use pulsed molecular gas lasers as sources to carry out magnetic resonance experiments in the far infrared. He was elected a fellow of the American Physical Society in 1984.

Dr. Emil Reisler
Los Angeles, California

Dr. Reisler is internationally known for insightful work on the biochemical and biophysical properties of the contractile proteins of muscle. He is considered a world leader in using biochemical approaches to clarify the molecular processes in muscle movement and force generation.

Dr. Michel J.A. Robert-Nicoud
Grenoble, France

Dr. Robert-Nicoud is known for pioneering contributions to the study of the cell nucleus, and chromosomes in particular. He is also highly regarded for his application of novel microtechniques to the study and manipulation of chromosomes, and especially for single chromosome microsurgery and confocal microscopy.

Dr. James B. Snow, Jr.
Bethesda, Maryland

Dr. Snow's publications cover the entire range of otolaryngology, including taste and smell, head and neck cancer, and auditory research. His studies on the blood flow of the inner ear, done nearly 20 years ago, are still quoted in the clinical literature. He has been director of the National Institutes of Health's new Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders since 1990.

Dr. Katepalli R. Sreenivasan
New Haven, Connecticut

An established authority in the field of turbulence, Dr. Sreenivasan, a professor of both mechanical engineering and physics at Yale, has, in recent years, pioneered the application of the new techniques of chaos and fractals to the study of turbulence, opening a new field of research.

Dr. G. Rainey Williams
Oklahoma City, Oklahoma

Dr. Williams, one of the outstanding cardiothoracic surgeons trained by Dr. Alfred Blalock in the 1940s and 1950s, is one of the few surgeons in the nation who have remained broadly based, performing general as well as thoracic, cardiac, and vascular surgery. He was among the first to successfully perform limb reimplantation.

Dr. Edward Ming-Yang Wu
Taipei, Taiwan

Dr. Wu has, since 1989, supervised Taiwan's water pollution prevention and control efforts and research. He also has done extensive research in mathematical modeling of water quality, environmental systems analysis, water and waste water engineering, and water resources engineering and systems analysis.

1989-90

Dr. Mason Cooke Andrews
Norfolk, Virginia

In a distinguished career of research, practice, and leadership in the field of gynecology and obstetrics, Dr. Andrews, as an educator and scholar, has expressed himself most effectively through his conceptual development and establishment of the Eastern Virginia Medical School. He has also contributed substantially to the public welfare in his community, being the major force in the revitalization of Norfolk's waterfront. Dr. Jeremiah A. Barondess New York, New York Dr. Barondess is a distinguished practitioner of medicine, scholar, and medical statesman. His work demonstrates the importance of scholarly inquiry in improving and extending the place of medicine and physician care in our society. He has had a profound impact on three decades of residents in medicine, and his elegance as a clinical teacher is nationally renowned.

Dr. Robert J. Blendon
Boston, Massachusetts

Dr. Blendon is one of the foremost researchers and policy analysts in the field of health policy and management. As senior vice president of the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation, he developed major research and demonstration initiatives on issues concerning access to health care for the disadvantaged. He has combined his management and operational responsibilities with a productive career in research on access to health care, public program analysis, and health policy and public opinion.

Dr. Alfonso Bosellini
Ferrara, Italy

Dr. Bosellini is internationally known for his geological work in the Dolomites of northern Italy. Recently, he was awarded Italy's highest honor for a scientist-the Gold Medal of the Italian National Academy. He is the author of more than 90 publications in his field and has just finished a major, post-graduate-level work on sedimentary geology.

Dr. Robert H. Brook
Los Angeles, California

Dr. Brook is a leading figure in the development of the science of studies of the quality of health care and of health care delivery in the United States. He has been frequently honored and cited for his work. His research and publications deal with an impressive array of current and future health care and health systems issues. They reflect an incisive understanding of the complexities and rapid change in the organization, outreach, assessment, and relevance of the nation's health care system.

Dr. Evan Calkins
Buffalo, New York

Dr. Calkins' career as a leader in American medicine reflects his many achievements, from chief resident at Massachusetts General Hospital to chairman of the Department of Medicine at the Buffalo General Hospital to chairman of the Department of Medicine at SUNY-Buffalo. In the latter position, his vigorous and visionary leadership brought the department into national and international prominence. He has, in more recent years, turned his energetic and incisive focus to the issues and problems of geriatrics and gerontology.

Dr. Pedro Cuatrecasas
Ann Arbor, Michigan

Dr. Cuatrecasas' pioneering work in the development and use of solid-phase technology for affinity purification of specific molecules has provided a radically new approach to the isolation of proteins and the analysis of enzyme-substrate binding, ligand-receptor interactions, and hormone action.

Dr. Herbert W. Dickerman*
Dr. Dickerman's early research contributions were in his seminal investigation of chain initiation in protein biosynthesis. Even while heavily engaged as an administrator in the New York State Department of Health, he was still able to continue his research and to branch out into a new field of inquiry, studying biosynthesis and details of modes of action of estrogens. Beyond his research and administrative responsibilities as commissioner of health of New York State, Dr. Dickerman played a major role in organizing efforts to understand and combat AIDS in that state.

Dr. Gottlieb C. Friesinger II
Nashville, Tennessee

Dr. Friesinger is a distinguished cardiovascular investigator, clinical cardiologist, and teacher. His research began with a focus on ischemic heart disease with special attention to coronary blood flow and the natural history of ischemic heart disease in relation to coronary arterio-graphic findings. The Friesinger classification of coronary arteriographic anatomy was one of the first attempts to standardize the reporting of results of the then-new tool, the coronary arteriogram. He has also investigated many other fields in cardiology, especially ventricular function and the interaction between platelets and the vessel wall.

Dr. Elmer G. Gilbert
Ann Arbor, Michigan

For three decades, Dr. Gilbert has been a leading figure in the mathematical aspects of systems and control engineering. His publications on the structure of linear systems and the linear decoupling problems are classics, and for many years he has been an important contributor to the literature on optimal control. More recently, Dr. Gilbert has made fundamental contributions to nonlinear systems and control and has been exploring control problems in robotics.

Dr. Cyrus Herzl Gordon
New York, New York

Dr. Gordon's distinguished career has established his reputation as one of the most prominent Semitists of his generation. In the wide range of his many achievements, he will probably be remembered most for his contributions to the new and challenging field of Ugaritic studies, where he and his writings have held a dominant position since the discovery and deciphering of this new Semitic language that is of enormous significance for biblical studies.

Dr. John Collins Harvey
Washington, D.C.

Dr. Harvey is a distinguished academic physician and clinical scholar. He has played a key role in establishing the gerontology program at the Georgetown University School of Medicine. He has demonstrated a lifelong interest in issues of medical ethics and, after 10 years of study on a part-time basis, he recently received the Ph.D. degree in moral theology from St. Mary's University. Because of his understanding and knowledge of medical ethics issues, he has been an important contributor to national and international conferences on a wide range of ethical topics.

Dr. Nathan O. Hatch
Notre Dame, Indiana

Through his outstanding monograph, The Sacred Cause of Liberty: Republican Thought and the Millennium in Revolutionary New England, Dr. Hatch has illuminated the relationship between religion and politics in revolutionary New England and thereby established himself as one of the outstanding younger scholars in early American history. He is currently a professor in the Department of History and vice president for advanced studies at the University of Notre Dame.

Dr. Bernadine P. Healy
Cleveland, Ohio

Dr. Healy occupies a distinguished position of leadership in American medicine as chair of the Research Institute of the Cleveland Clinic Foundation. She has achieved a singularly impressive record of accomplishment as a researcher in cardiac pathology and cardiomyopathy, as well as in her administrative career, as assistant dean for postdoctoral programs at The Johns Hopkins School of Medicine, as deputy director of the Office of Science and Technology Policy at the White House, as past president of the American Federation for Clinical Research, and as president of the American Heart Association.

Dr. William Daniel Hillis
Waco, Texas

Dr. Hillis has an outstanding record of intellectual and academic achievements and an unusually strong record of community service. His contributions to medical research have been in the fields of virology and infectious diseases. His description, in 1961, of hepatitis in a chimpanzee colony was the first indication that chimpanzees may be susceptible to human hepatitis, leading to a unique model for studies of pathogenesis and vaccination with hepatitis B virus. Other research has included a wide range of virus groups, especially with regard to their relevance to clinical medicine, such as cytomegalovirus and hepatitis B infections in renal transplant recipients and the role of viruses in kidney diseases.

Dr. Lee Milton Howard
Falls Church, Virginia

Dr. Howard has been one of the nation's major contributors to solving health problems and establishing health programs in developing countries. As chief of the USAID malaria eradication branch and later as director of USAID's Office of Health, he was the focus of the agency's many programs designed to improve health in developing countries. Dr. Howard formulated the agency's first efforts to extend low-cost health delivery systems on a national scale. These initiatives were the direct predecessors of the World Health Organization's 1978 conference on primary health care and formed the basis of the WHO "Health for All" program. Under his leadership in the Office of Health, A.I.D. extended its efforts in maternal and child health, environmental sanitation, and programs of oral rehydration.

Dr. John O'Neal Humphries
Columbia, South Carolina

Dr. Humphries is best known for his contributions to cardiology, both as an investigator and as a teacher. His major accomplishments in research deal with the correlation of cardiac physical signs with physiology as determined by cardiac catheterization and angiography. A background in epidemiology also led to one of his major contributions investigating the natural history of ischemic heart disease in relation to arteriographic findings in a group of patients followed over a period of 12 years.

Dr. Maurice H. Lessof
London, England

Dr. Lessof is the senior figure in clinical immunology in the United Kingdom today. Throughout his career, he has also stayed at the forefront of allergy research. He initiated studies into Addison's disease and Hashimoto's Struma. Subsequent investigations included food allergy, asthma, lupus, eczema, urticaria, migraine, and bee venom allergy.

Dr. Anthony P. Mahowald
Cleveland, Ohio

Dr. Mahowald is an international leader in developmental biology in general, and in the area of Drosophila developmental genetics in particular. He is well-known for his research on the Drosophila embryo and for his masterful combination of genetic and developmental methods to the elucidation of the cytological and biochemical basis of embryogenesis. He has demonstrated the continuity of polar granules during the life cycle of Drosophila and provided one of the first documentations of DNA in mitochondria. With Allan Spaulding, he co-discovered DNA amplification in follicle cells.

Dr. James O. Mason
Washington, D.C.

Dr. Mason is assistant secretary for health, Department of Health and Human Services. He was formerly executive director, Utah Department of Health, and has held numerous positions in the U.S. Public Health Service, culminating in the directorship of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention in Atlanta. He is the author of numerous scientific papers in the field of public health.

Dr. Michael H. Merson
Geneva, Switzerland

Dr. Merson has had an exceptional career with service in a variety of settings. The primary focus of his research has been the study and treatment of diarrheal disease. From his work as chief of the Enteric Diseases Branch of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention to chief medical epidemiologist of the Cholera Research Laboratory in Bangladesh to his current achievements as director of both the World Health Organization's Program to Control Diarrhoeal Diseases and the Acute Respiratory Infection Control Program, Dr. Merson has amply demonstrated his extraordinary skills and commitment to the relief of major health problems of developing countries.

Dr. Allen H. Neims
Gainesville, Florida

Dr. Neims is one of the outstanding scholars in pharmacology today, having made major contributions to our understanding of numerous drugs and their biological mechanisms, including caffeine. He has made important contributions, also, to the understanding of mitochondrial DNA.

Dr. Stephen L. Passman
Albuquerque, New Mexico

Dr. Passman's early studies focused on the kinematics of continuous media. He later investigated Cosserat theories of plates and shells and then the flow of granular materials, porous media, multiphase flow, and theories of damage. His research in the past decade has concentrated on mathematical the ories of fundamental aspects of thermomec-hanics of materials.

Dr. Mario G. Pitteri
Padova, Italy

Dr. Pitteri has studied deeply and broadly in mathematics, the foundations of mechanics, thermomechanics and its history, and the mathematical aspects of the kinetic theory of gases. He has also explored thermodynamics, the non-linear Boltzmann equation, and the twinning crystals. His published work on the latter is already a classic and widely cited. Dr. Pitteri's papers on kinetic theory provide counterexamples refuting widely diffused and incorrect beliefs.

Dr. Sheikh Riazuddin
Lahore, Pakistan

Dr. Riazuddin has distinguished credentials both as a prominent biochemist and molecular biologist and as an educator and director of an international research center associated with the University of the Punjab in his native Pakistan. He has made significant contributions to our understanding of the range of biochemical mechanisms employed by prokaryotic organisms in the repair of chromosomes damaged by ultraviolet light or alkylating agents. Dr. Riazuddin has recently extended his research into more applied areas. This work has led to the discovery and isolation of several new enzymes, some of which will surely be of significant practical value to the fields of molecular biology and recombinant DNA research.

Dr. David L. Rimoin
Los Angeles, California

Dr. Rimoin is a leader in the field of medical genetics and was the founding chairman of the American Board of Medical Genetics. He is known for his contributions in the area of the genetics of endocrine disorders and particularly for his contributions to the understanding of genetic disorders of the skeleton and inheritable disorders of connective tissue.

Dr. T. Franklin Williams
Bethesda, Maryland

Dr. Williams' career has been a dynamic blend of several research areas. His early contributions involved the study of water and electrolyte physiology in man and then on factors influencing the quality of medical care and family studies of disease. Subsequently, Dr. Williams turned his focus to glucose and potassium fluxes in the liver, and produced perceptive writings on practical problems of diabetes management. For the past 15 years, he has earned a worldwide reputation for his studies on the specific medical problems of the elderly.

Dr. David B. Wilson
Ithaca, New York

As a leader in the field of molecular biochemistry, Dr. Wilson has successfully combined the intellectual and experimental techniques of biochemistry, genetics, and regulatory biology in exploring complex processes occurring within bacterial cells. He has already contributed significantly to our understanding of the complex bacterial cellulase enzyme system, and is adding considerably to the knowledge of mechanisms of bacterial protein secretion. His unusually imaginative, thorough, and disciplined basic research is shedding new light on the detailed molecular mechanisms by which living cells control some of their most vital functions.

1988

Dr. Ian N.R. Creese
Newark, New Jersey

Dr. Creese has focused his research on the link between behavior and specific neurotransmitters. Subsequent to the publication of classic papers on the role of dopamine and the effects of other psychoactive drugs, he was able to identify two distinct types of dopamine receptors. Dr. Creese's work has direct application to the understanding of supersensitivity to neuroleptic drugs and to the alteration in synaptic transmission with aging.

Dr. Paul Allen Ebert
Chicago, Illinois

Dr. Ebert is one of the world's outstanding pediatric heart surgeons. In addition to his clinical activities, he has played a major role in the development of surgery in this country, has contributed extensively to the literature, and chaired departments at two major institutions before becoming director of the American College of Surgeons.

Dr. Charles Edwards
Albany, New York

Dr. Edwards has concentrated his research on the electro- neurophysiology of single cells, where he made signal contributions to our understanding of the processes that control and modify electrical activity of nerve and muscle. In addition to his laboratory research, Dr. Edwards is noted for his role in international education and as the author of highly regarded critical reviews that are especially valued for their historical perspective.

Dr. Neil Heiman
Fremont, California

Dr. Heiman developed important techniques using muon spin resonance to study the magnetic behavior of impurities in solids. His investigations have been especially useful in describing the properties of ultrathin magnetic films, a field of intense commercial interest.

Dr. Gordon R. Hennigar
Charleston, South Carolina

Dr. Hennigar is a prominent diagnostic pathologist whose research focus has been on chemical and drug toxicity. He also has taken a lead role in the development of forensic pathology in a number of eastern states and is active in many professional societies.

Dr. Dudley P. Jackson
Washington, D.C.

Dr. Jackson began his work in hematology with studies of the effects of radiation injury. His later work, which has been recognized by a number of important awards, has concentrated on blood coagulation mechanisms and the role of platelets.

Dr. Sushila Nayar
New Delhi, India

Dr. Nayar has been a central figure in the development of health care programs and educational institutes in India for more than four decades. During her service as Minister of Health, many fundamental health programs were established, including the treatment and control of malaria, venereal disease, tuberculosis, and leprosy. She also was active in the establishment of emergency medical services in New Delhi. Dr. Nayar is the founder of the Mahatma Gandhi Institute of Medical Sciences, which brings medical training to the rural areas, and she continues to be active in programs of the institute.

Dr. Sidney Raffel
Stanford, California

Dr. Raffel conducted early work on the immunological specificity of tissue and cell antigens, including investigations of a group of heat-stable haptens of organs and tissues. His studies delineated the relationship between hypersensitivity and immunity in tuberculosis and related diseases. Dr. Raffel has been an active participant in the development of several national committees concerned with research in allergies and infectious diseases.

Dr. Bernard Roizman
Chicago, Illinois

Dr. Roizman is one of the world's outstanding virologists. Following his early work with poliomyelitis, he has studied the herpes virus with special emphasis on its relationship to cancer. Dr. Roizman's educational efforts include editorships of several journals and organizational roles in a number of international meetings.

Dr. Robert D. Simoni
Stanford, California

Dr. Simoni is a leading contributor to our understanding of cellular transport. He has studied the properties of these processes for a number of systems, with special interest in sugar and cholesterol transport.

Dr. Henry Sussman
Buffalo, New York

Dr. Sussman is an expert on literary comparisons and on the use of language. Wide-ranging in his approach to literature, Dr. Sussman has written and lectured on authors from Hegel and Hawthorne to Kierkegaard and Kafka.

Dr. Leslie P. Weiner
Los Angeles, California

Dr. Weiner is a leader in the field of neurology. Recently, he has applied molecular biological techniques to the study of chronic viral infection of the nervous system and to chronic demyelination with great success. Dr. Weiner has served the academic community as a member of the advisory board of a number of national organizations concerned with neurology.

Dr. David G. Whittingham
Carshalton, United Kingdom

Dr. Whittingham has made numerous fundamental contributions to our understanding of the cellular and molecular processes involved in fertilization, embryogenesis, and oviductal function. His description of the role of energy sources in gamete differentiation and his development of in vitro preservation techniques for mammalian embryos continue to have a profound impact on the agricultural and reproductive sciences as well as on genetics and developmental biology.

1987

Dr. Lilia Alberghina
Milan, Italy

A specialist in plant physiology, Dr. Alberghina's research on ribosomal growth and the synthesis of RNA has clarified the mechanisms of cell regulation in microbial and mammalian systems. Currently, she is engaged in a program to explore the use of biotechnology in Italian industry. Dr. Alberghina is the recipient of the 1986 Antonio Feltrinelli Award for Biology from the National Academy of Lincei.

Dr. Bobby Ray Alford
Houston, Texas

Dr. Alford is an authority on the physiology of hearing and balance in animals and man. He has been honored for his research and leadership abilities by the American Medical Association, the American Academy of Ophthalmology and Otolaryngology, and the Michael E. DeBakey International Society.

Dr. John D. Axe
Upton, New York

Dr. Axe's research contributions in spectroscopy have advanced atomic and crystal field optical spectroscopy, electronic transition probabilities, laser spectroscopy, and structured phase transitions by neutron scattering. Dr. Axe is a fellow of the American Physical Society, the recipient of the Bertram Eugene Warren Diffraction Physics Award, and a member of several committees concerned with the national research program in condensed matter physics.

Dr. John Bongaarts
New York, New York

An internationally recognized scholar of mathematical demography and demographic methodology, Dr. Bongaarts' quantified model on the proximate determinants of fertility has had a major influence in identifying and resolving issues in fertility policy. In a recent publication, he has suggested an alternative to the one-child family in China, a proposal which is stimulating an examination of alternative paths to population stabilization and which will influence the lives of hundreds of millions of people.

Dr. R. Gordon Douglas, Jr.
New York, New York

Dr. Douglas is recognized as an international authority on viral infections, especially those of respiratory tract viruses. His research has included the natural history of infection, mechanism of spread, immune response, and vaccine efficacy and chemotherapy on a wide range of viruses including herpes and rhinovirus.

Dr. Thomas F. Ferris
Minneapolis, Minnesota

Dr. Ferris conducted the definitive studies of the role of angiotensin and prostaglandins in the regulation of uterine blood flow in pregnancy. Considered an authority on diseases of the kidney and renal physiology, Dr. Ferris is also widely recognized as a teacher, having served as visiting professor at more than 30 institutions during the past decade.

Dr. Neal Nathanson
Philadelphia, Pennsylvania

An epidemiologist, virologist, and immunologist, Dr. Nathanson served for 23 years on the faculty of the School of Hygiene and Public Health. In addition to major contributions to the epidemiology and virology of poliomyelitis, the slow viruses, and encephalitis, he has examined important theoretical considerations for the eradication of viruses from human populations.

Dr. Pieter A.C. Raats
Haren, The Netherlands

An expert on the mechanics of soils, Dr. Raats has created mathematical models describing the transport of mass and momentum for particular kinds and circumstances of soils. He has served on a number of Dutch national committees concerned with soil science.

Dr. Thomas A. Stamey
Stanford, California

Dr. Stamey is internationally recognized for his understanding of renovascular hypertension and recurrent urinary tract infections. His work has led to effective treatment of such infections, particularly in women. Dr. Stamey is now directing a major study of the pathology of prostatic cancer and the role of oncogenes in the development and progression of the disease. He served on the faculty of the School of Medicine from 1958 to 1961.

Dr. Katharine Boucot Sturgis*
In addition to extensive work on diseases of the chest, from tuberculosis to lung cancer, Dr. Sturgis was responsible for the development of the Department of Preventive Medicine at Women's Medical College of Pennsylvania. A nationally recognized leader in preventive medicine, she served as the first woman president or vice president of more than a half-dozen professional organizations.

Dr. Edvardas Varnauskas
Guteborg, Sweden

A cardiologist who has made important contributions to our understanding of pulmonary blood volume, Dr. Varnauskas has provided new insights into the relationships between pulmonary blood flow and diffusing capacity at rest and during exercise. As a World Health Organization consultant, he has played an active role in guiding cardiac care throughout the world.

Dr. Karlman Wasserman
Los Angeles, California

Dr. Wasserman is a leader in the study of respiratory control during exercise and its role in pulmonary rehabilitation. He has been particularly active in the study of respiratory physiology and pulmonary medicine.

Dr. Samuel Alonzo Wells, Jr.
St. Louis, Missouri

One of the outstanding leaders in academic surgery today, Dr. Wells is especially known for his laboratory and clinical investigations in surgical endocrinology. He has received the Resident Essay Award from the James Ewing Society, a Special Fellowship from the National Cancer Institute, and the Distinguished Alumnus Award from Duke University Medical Center.

1986

Dr. Moshe Abeles
Philadelphia, Pennsylva

nia Dr. Abeles is widely recognized for his work on the neocortex and local circuits in the brain. He has received prizes for his papers on EEG synchronizing and desynchronizing neurons and for his work on computer-aided analysis of nerve cell activity.

Dr. Haroutune Armenian
Beirut, Lebanon

Dr. Armenian is a leader in epidemiology, with interests ranging from cancer and heart disease to medical care delivery practices. As dean of the School of Public Health at the American University of Beirut, he has continued excellent research and educational administration despite the city's current chaos.

Dr. Ernesto Carafoli
Zurich, Switzerland

Well known for his studies on the role of mitochondria in calcium metabolism, Dr. Carafoli helped identify the uptake and exit pathways for calcium in this organelle. He is also an authority on the bioenergetics of normal and pathological states.

Dr. Denton A. Cooley
Houston, Texas

One of the world's premier heart surgeons, Dr. Cooley was among the small group of surgeons working at Johns Hopkins with Dr. Alfred Blalock in pioneering the development of cardiac surgery. He has been honored throughout the world for his outstanding contributions to the field.

Dr. Gilles Marc Corcos
Berkeley, California

Combining work in theoretical and experimental aspects of fluid mechanics, Dr. Corcos was a pioneer in measuring the pressure fluctuations and acoustical properties of turbulent boundary layers. More recently, he has focused on the mathematical modeling of turbulent shear layers.

Dr. Milton Thomas Edgerton
Charlottesville, Virginia

A prolific contributor to the literature of reconstructive surgery and a skilled surgeon, Dr. Edgerton has advanced the procedures used in reconstruction necessitated by birth defects, war wounds, cancer, and burns. He has also been concerned with the psychiatric aspects of such surgery.

Dr. Wayne A. Hendrickson
New York, New York

Using crystallographic and magnetic resonance techniques, Dr. Hendrickson has helped to determine the structure of biologically important molecules. He has also contributed to the advancement of analysis techniques used in crystallography, and performed important long-term studies of hemoglobin and hemerythrins.

Dr. Georgeanna Seegar Jones
Norfolk, Virginia

Dr. Georgeanna Seegar Jones has had a distinguished career in gynecology and obstetrics, concentrating on the effects of hormones on the reproductive process; her work has been complemented for almost 50 years with that of her husband, Dr. Howard Jones. Together they have won international acclaim for the establishment of the first in vitro fertilization program in the United States.

Dr. Howard Wilbur Jones
Norfolk, Virginia

Working with his wife, Dr. Georgeanna Seegar Jones, Dr. Howard Jones has concentrated on the surgical aspects of gynecology, with a particular focus on aspects of malformation and on cancer. His studies, conducted in collaboration with his wife, led to the first in vitro fertilization program in the United States.

Dr. Robert G. Petersdorf
La Jolla, California

For more than 30 years, Dr. Petersdorf has been a leader in research on bacteremia and its consequences, such as fever, infective endocarditis, and meningitis. Moreover, he has been a practical and forceful leader in the evolution of the academic medical establishment to meet society's needs.

Dr. Raymond Seltser
Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania

Dr. Seltser is widely recognized for his epidemiological studies in the treatment of pneumonia, cerebrovascular disease, and the effects of radiation on physicians. Dean of the Graduate School of Public Health at the University of Pittsburgh, he is also well-known for his outstanding leadership in public health education.

Dr. Morton M. Weber
Saint Louis, Missouri

Dr. Weber is an internationally recognized authority on electron transport in biologically important materials, especially Mycobacterium phlei. He has also made important contributions in his research on the effect of light and other regulators in electron transport and energy metabolism.

Dr. William O. Williams
Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania

An international authority in the field of continuum thermomechanics, Dr. Williams has concentrated on the mechanics and thermomech-anics of mixtures. His contributions have ranged from discussion of the foundation of thermodynamics and mature theory to models for muscular contraction.

1985

Dr. Jo Eirik Asvall
Copenhagen, Denmark

Dr. Asvall's efforts led to the reorganization of the Norwegian health care system and the introduction of one of Europe's most sophisticated data systems. As director of the Regional Office for Europe of the World Health Organization, he is now fostering imaginative programs in health planning for the European community.

Dr. Ivan L. Bennett, Jr.*
Dr. Bennett's record of distinguished national service in research, medical education, and the shaping of health policy included administrative posts as department director and acting director of the Office of Science and Technology.

Dr. Leighton E. Cluff
Princeton, New Jersey

Dr. Cluff is executive vice president of the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation, where he carries out a broad range of policies designed to improve health care delivery systems. He has also made important contributions to research on infectious diseases.

Dr. John Thomas Grayhack
Chicago, Illinois

Dr. Grayhack is professor and chairman of the Department of Urology and director of the Kretschmer Laboratory at Northwestern University Medical School. He is one of the nation's leading urologists, and his research has broadly advanced the detection and treatment of prostatic and bladder diseases.

Dr. Merel H. Harmel
Durham, North Carolina

The first anesthesiology resident at Hopkins, Dr. Harmel is professor in the Department of Anesthesiology at the Duke University Medical Center. A leader in the development of anesthesiology, he has served three major universities as anesthesiology chairman.

Dr. Horace Louis Hodes*
Dr. Hodes was Distinguished Service Professor in the Department of Pediatrics at Mount Sinai School of Medicine in New York City. Blending research and clinical service, he contributed to the basic understanding of the structure and behavior of viruses, and was a role model for many young physicians.

Dr. Thomas P. Hughes
Philadelphia, Pennsylvania A scholar in the history of 19th- and 20th-century technology, Dr. Hughes is the author of two landmark publications about the nature of technological change: Elmer Sperry - Inventor and Engineer and Networks of Power - Electrification of Western Society 1880-1930.

Dr. Ingo Muller
Berlin, Federal Republic of Germany

Dr. Muller is an authority on thermodynamics, including irreversible processes and relativistic thermodynamics. His influential publications are widely cited and used, both in this country and in Europe.

Dr. David C. Sabiston, Jr.
Durham, North Carolina

A leading figure in cardiac surgery, Dr. Sabiston has produced important research in the physiology of coronary circulation and in myocardial metabolism, and has performed pioneering work in the development of coronary artery bypass grafts.

Dr. Mikio Shikita
Chiba-shi, Japan

Dr. Shikita directs chemical pharmacology at the National Institute of Radiological Sciences in Japan. His research has attracted worldwide attention in his field and has led to a better understanding of many aspects of steroid biochemistry and radiation protection.

Dr. Te Pao Wang
Shanghai, China

While at Johns Hopkins, Dr. Wang carried out pioneering studies in an area of biochemistry that became important in developing basic approaches to modern enzymology. His recent research, on the structure and function of transfer RNAs, culminated in the synthesis of several transfer RNAs and is recognized throughout the world as an important contribution to molecular biology and biochemistry.

Dr. James J. Whalen
Buffalo, New York

Dr. Whalen's research has been of great importance in developing compact, complex computers through the study of electromagnetic compatibility and of fault tolerance in electronic devices and circuits.

Dr. Henry I. Yamamura
Tucson, Arizona

Dr. Yamamura is a leader in psychopharmacology. His studies of receptor sites in the brain and his work with clin-ical colleagues have added substantially to the studies of neurotransmitter abnormalities in such brain diseases as Huntington's and Alzheimer's diseases.

1984

Dr. Guillermo Arbona
Rio Piedras, Puerto Rico

As secretary of health for the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, Dr. Arbona developed a regional system of health service delivery, providing effective treatment to a low-income population in an area subject to tropical disease.

Dr. Charles C.J. Carpenter
Bethesda, Maryland

Dr. Carpenter's early research was on the role of the renin-angiotensin system in control of aldosterone secretion. He also has made major contributions to the knowledge of cholera, with particular emphasis on its therapeutic management.

Dr. David B. Clark
Lexington, Kentucky

Recognized nationally as one of the most gifted teachers in clinical neurology, Dr. Clark has also helped shape the development of child neurology, using the tools of neurology and the neuro-sciences to study the developmental problems of the human nervous system.

Dr. Francis R. Hama
Stuttgart, Federal Republic of Germany

Dr. Hama has been a pioneer experimenter in the instability of subsonic and supersonic laminar boundary layer flows along solid surfaces, and on their transition to turbulent flow, developing efficient devices for hastening the transition and carrying out analyses important to understanding curved vortices.

Dr. Joseph E. Johnson III
Winston-Salem, North Carolina

Dr. Johnson, whose research contributions to the study of staphylococcal infections and adverse drug reactions are well-known, has also published extensively on the amplified migration inhibition effect and pulmonary host defense mechanisms. Chairman of the Department of Medicine at Wake Forest University, he has served as president of the Association of Professors of Medicine.

Professor Peter J. Parish
London, England

Internationally recognized as a scholar of American history, Professor Parish has received special praise for his book The American Civil War. At the time of his election to the society, he was at work on an introductory text on American history, intended particularly for non-American students.

Dr. Stephen Joseph Ryan, Jr.
Los Angeles, California

Dr. Ryan is one of the outstanding investigators in ophthalmology, specializing in macular diseases and retinal detachment. Since 1974 he has been chairman of the Department of Ophthalmology at the University of Southern California, and since 1977 medical director of the Doheny Eye Foundation.

Dr. Asher P. Schick
Jerusalem, Israel

Dr. Schick is a world authority on the hydrology and geomorphology of true desert basins with low annual precipitation. His knowledge, acquired over 18 years of a continuous measurement program in small desert catchments in the mountains of Israel, constitutes the basis for qualitative comparisons of landforms from arid to tropical regions.

Dr. Donald W. Simborg
San Francisco, California

Dr. Simborg has developed computer-based approaches to the investigation of cardiac arrhythmias and has devised computer-based solutions to many biomedical problems. An early advocate of modular systems implemented on minicomputers and integrated by networking, he is an expert in clinical information systems.

Dr. Frank Cole Spencer
New York, New York

Dr. Spencer has achieved widespread acclaim for his contributions to cardiac surgery, especially coronary artery bypass surgery. He has also developed major advances in such diverse areas as the operative prevention of pulmonary emboli, the treatment of complications of acute pancreatitis, and the management of liver abscess and liver trauma.

Dr. Newman Lloyd Stephens
Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada

Dr. Stephens' research on the velocity of muscle shortening and the events involved in relaxation using certain pharmacological agents is applicable to areas of airways disease, such as asthma. It also provides the foundation for the understanding of smooth muscle behavior to antigen challenge, and the alteration of this behavior by drugs.

Dr. Paul D. Stolley
Philadelphia, Pennsylvania

An epidemiologist, Dr. Stolley has helped develop the field known as pharmaco-epidemiology, which uses epidemiological methods to identify possible adverse effects of drugs. He has also been active in helping to formulate guidelines for the use of drugs both in this country and abroad.

Dr. Harry L. Swinney
Austin, Texas

Dr. Swinney has made major advances in the study of turbulence and the instabilities in both chemical and hydro- dynamic systems. His detailed studies of the critical phenomena in fluids have led to a more complete understanding of thermodynamic properties of chemical systems. Similar detailed studies of fluid flows and chemical reactions have changed the understanding of the apparently random behavior of systems of many particles.

1983

Dr. Mordhay Avron*
Dr. Avron contributed extensively to the study of photosynthesis, especially in identifying the coupling between photo-induced electron transport and the synthesis of ATP, the universal energy currency of living systems.

Dr. Ross J. Baldessarini
Belmont, Massachusetts

Internationally recognized for his work in psychopharmacology, Dr. Baldessarini has played an important part in integrating basic neurochemical and neuropharmacologic research into clinical psychiatry, through both his research and his writings.

Dr. Shao-chiung Cheng
Beijing, People's Republic of China

For more than 50 years, Dr. Cheng has contributed to the control of disease in animals in China. After early work on diagnostic antigens he turned to the development and evaluation of vaccines to control rinderpest, a disease of cattle. By 1957 this disease, which had killed millions of animals yearly in China, had been totally eradicated.

Dr. Malcolm Andrew Ferguson-Smith
Glasgow, Scotland

Dr. Ferguson-Smith's work was instrumental in clarifying the clinical and cytogenetic features of Klinefelter syndrome, and he was among the first investigators to successfully use depletion mapping of human chromosomes.

Dr. Joseph J. Ferretti
Oklahoma City, Oklahoma

A leader in the genetic analysis of pathogenic streptococci, Dr. Ferretti has also contributed to the assay of toxins and the genetic basis for toxin formation by bacteria. His work on the basic mechanism responsible for antibiotic resistance in streptococci has special clinical value.

Dr. Carlos Luis Gonzalez
Caracas, Venezuela

Dr. Gonzalez has had a distinguished career in public health, exemplified by his extensive work with the World Health Organization and the Pan American Health Organization. His studies of the comparative mortality experience of populations in North and South America represented a major contribution to the understanding of problems of health and disease in the Americas.

Dr. Richard B. Hornick
Rochester, New York

Dr. Hornick has made important contributions in the field of infectious diseases, especially the study of typhoid fever. His widely recognized leadership ability has resulted in numerous appointments to editorial review boards and oversight committees.

Dr. Julius R. Krevans
San Francisco, California

An active contributor to the field of hematology, Dr. Krevans has also been an influential spokesman in medical education. The broad view he has expressed on the structure of health care systems has gained him a prominent role in both national and international discussions of this important topic.

Dr. Dwight C. McGoon
Rochester, New York

Dr. McGoon has gained an international reputation in the field of cardiac surgery. His prominence in this area has been demonstrated by his election to leadership positions in a number of national surgical associations.

Dr. David L. Miller
London, England

Dr. Miller's interest in infectious diseases, particularly in acute respiratory infections, has led to his increasingly important role in British public health. Recently, Dr. Miller has been actively involved in assessing the benefits of pertussis vaccination, and in the WHO program for control of active respiratory diseases.

Dr. David E. Rogers*
President of the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation, Dr. Rogers is a leader in the fields of medical education and research. His own research has resulted in major contributions to the understanding of complications inherent in influenza epidemics, the basic biology of the staphylococcus botulism, and the understanding of histoplasmosis.

Dr. Hiroyuki Suga
Osaka, Japan

With a rare combination of physiological scholarship and biomedical engineering talent, Dr. Suga has gained an international reputation in cardiovascular dynamics. His detailed studies of system parameters, associated with cardiac function, have led to new views of the most appropriate measurements to indicate the health of the heart.

Dr. Piero Villaggio
Pisa, Italy

Dr. Villaggio's research has covered many areas in solid mechanics, and his work in the field of classical elasticity is particularly important. Organizing the mathematical work on the qualitative theory of partial differential equations, he has illustrated how this structure can be used to improve understanding of practical elastic phenomena.

1982

Dr. Maurice M. Bursey
Chapel Hill, North Carolina

A chemist, Dr. Bursey has conducted extensive research in ion cyclotron resonance spectrometry, and has developed laser-assisted field desorption as a technique for thermally labile molecules.

Dr. J. Michael Criley
Torrance, California

Combining his skills as a photographer and as a cardiac physiologist, Dr. Criley has elucidated many cardiac con-ditions, including the use of X-ray motion pictures to clar-ify the physiology of closed-chest cardiac resuscitation.

Dr. Carlos Eyzaquirre
Salt Lake City, Utah

Beginning with his study of fiber types in Hering's nerve, Dr. Eyzaquirre has contributed to the understanding of the carotid body. He later extended his work to include studies of the presence of acetycholine in the carotid body and its response to exogenous application of this neurotransmitter.

Dr. Hans Fuchtbauer
Bochum, West Germany

As one of the world's preeminent sedimentologists, Dr. Fuchtbauer has elucidated the mode of formation of a variety of sediments from evaporates to sandstones. He has also contributed significantly to the literature of carbonate geochemistry.

Dr. Robert S. Gordon, Jr.*
Dr. Gordon's desire to apply his research on gastrointestinal physiology to practical public health problems led to his pioneering work on cholera in Dacca. While working in the office of the director of the National Institutes of Health, he encouraged the development of survey research as an important element in providing cost-effective health care.

Dr. Marvin A. Griffin*
Dr. Griffin applied operations research to a variety of problems, from efficient telemetry of data to industrial application of transportation queuing. He also actively contributed to the use of simulated systems by managers.

Dr. C. Rollins Hanlon
Chicago, Illinois

As director of the American College of Surgeons since 1969, Dr. Hanlon, a cardio-thoracic surgeon, has effectively promoted the unity of surgery and the surgical specialties in shaping health policies.

Dr. Elizabeth Dexter Hay
Boston, Massachusetts

Dr. Hay has helped focus the attention of developmental biologists on the inductive role of the extracellular matrix during embryogenesis. In addition to her research, she has provided leadership on the national level by serving as editor-in-chief for a major journal and as president of two major professional societies.

Dr. Gordon L. Kane
Ann Arbor, Michigan

Dr. Kane is highly regarded among physicists for his analyses of experiments crucial to understanding new theoretical approaches to elementary particle physics-analyses that demonstrate his ability to understand the subtle aspects of theoretical and experiential work in this field.

Dr. David M. Kipnis
St. Louis, Missouri

An outstanding physician and scientist, Dr. Kipnis has performed valuable research on carbohydrate and lipid metabolism in health and disease, particularly diabetes. In 1981 his work earned him election to the National Academy of Sciences.

Dr. Carl Kupfer
Bethesda, Maryland

Dr. Kupfer is internationally known for his studies in pathogenesis of glaucoma and the experimental pharmacology of the control of intraocular pressure. As director of the National Eye Institute, he also was instrumental in promoting an effective study of the role of photocoagulation in treating diabetic retinopathy.

Dr. Leonard T. Kurland
Rochester, New York

Dr. Kurland's application of epidemiological methods to neurological diseases led to an elucidation of the influence of environmental factors in the development of neurologic disorders. His work has also led to valuable studies of cancer, digestive diseases, and vascular diseases.

Dr. Harry Orlinsky*
A biblical scholar, Dr. Orlinsky translated ancient texts for Jewish and Christian readers with particular attention to maintaining accuracy and faithfulness to the original texts. He also wrote extensively on interpretations of the ancient texts, drawing on history and archaeology to support his analyses.

Dr. Francine V. Schrijen
Cedex, France

Dr. Schrijen has focused her research on the effect of respiratory diseases on pulmonary blood flow and on systemic circulation, using animal and clinical studies to investigate the interrelations between respiratory mechanics, gas exchange, pulmonary circulation, and systemic circulation.

1981

Dr. Erwin H. Ackerknecht*
A historian of medicine, Dr. Ackerknecht is best known for his Short History of Medicine and Short History of Psychiatry. His monograph "Malaria in the Upper Mississippi Valley" has influenced students of U.S. history as well as students of the history of medicine.

Dr. Henry T. Bahnson
Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania

Dr. Bahnson was a pioneer in vascular and cardiothoracic surgery and has made significant contributions to surgery in both acquired and congenital heart disease.

Professor Genevi E8ve Compte-Bellot
Ecully, France

Professor Compte-Bellot is one of the world's leading experimentalists in fluid mechanics and acoustics. In addition to her work in turbulence and two-dimensional models of fluid motion, she has assumed national administrative responsibilities in France.

Dr. Wilbur Downs*
Dr. Downs' studies of malaria and arboviruses have greatly expanded our knowledge of these infections. Dr. Downs was also active as a consultant on a wide range of international health problems.

Dr. Leon Eisenberg
Boston, Massachusetts

Dr. Eisenberg has helped to raise child psychiatry to its present distinguished position in American clinical medicine. His own work has focused on the issues of minimal brain dysfunction, accurate diagnosis, and hyperkinetic children.

Dr. Clarence V. Hodges
Kailwa-Kona, Hawaii

With Dr. Charles Huggins, Dr. Hodges co-authored the first paper to describe the profound effects of hormonal manipulation on patients suffering from disseminated prostatic cancer. His career continued to highlight research on the prostate gland, work which earned him national recognition.

Dr. Theodor Koller
Zurich, Switzerland

Dr. Koller helped to develop procedures permitting the direct electron-microscopic study of DNA's interaction with protein molecules. These techniques have been used to advance understanding of how information is transcribed from DNA into RNA.

Dr. Thomas W. Langfitt
Philadelphia, Pennsylvania

Internationally recognized for his basic research in the pathophysiology of head injury, Dr. Langfitt has played a central role in the understanding of increased intracranial pressure and its effects on brain function.

Dr. Sherman M. Mellinkoff
Los Angeles, California

Dr. Mellinkoff has conducted important research in gastroenterology, and his studies of amino acid metabolism in liver disease and of familial Mediterranean fever have been highly influential. His tenure as dean of the UCLA medical school has been marked by the emergence of that institution as one of the country's leading medical schools.

Dr. Baruch Modan
Tel Hashomer, Israel

Dr. Modan's epidemiological studies of the effects of radiation have added to our knowledge of the reaction of tissue to ionizing radiation. He has also studied polycythemia vera, and these studies played an important role in reevaluating the methods of treatment of this disease.

Dr. John Van Sickle
New York, New York

A classicist of wide-ranging interests and considerable achievement, Dr. Van Sickle's work on the recently discovered text of Archilochus has attracted international attention. His study of Virgil's Bucolics and his work on Augustan "poetry books" have also been recognized for their superior quality.

Dr. Paul Wehrle
Los Angeles, California

Dr. Wehrle has played a leading role in the management of communicable diseases, including WHO's successful smallpox eradication campaign. His research has encompassed diseases from smallpox to polio and meningitis.

1980

Dr. Mary Ellen Avery
Wellesley, Massachusetts

Dr. Avery is known for her work in the physiology and pathology of pulmonary diseases of newborns and infants. In particular, her research has led to the demonstration of the underlying pathophysiology in neonatal respiratory distress syndrome.

Dr. Edward Grzegorzewski*
Poland's delegate to the founding conference of the World Health Organization, Dr. Grzegorzewski joined the World Health Organization (WHO) shortly after its formation. He was highly influential in curriculum development and physician training to address problems in preventive medicine.

Dr. David H. Hubel
Boston, Massachusetts

With Dr. Torsten Wiesel, Dr. Hubel conducted innovative studies of the visual system at the cellular level. These studies, which have resulted in an understanding of how the brain is organized to process visual information, earned Drs. Hubel and Wiesel the 1981 Nobel Prize in medicine.

Dr. Frank M. Leslie
Glasgow, Scotland

An early worker in the field of liquid crystals, Dr. Leslie is now recognized as an international authority on this subject, contributing to the literature on thermal, magnetic, and hydrodynamic properties of liquid crystals.

Dr. Attilio Maseri
London, England

Dr. Maseri has earned a preeminent position in the field of cardiology through his work in coronary artery disease. His work on the role of coronary vasospasm in producing myocardial ischemia has led to widespread recognition of the significance of this problem in humans.

Dr. Ralph S. Paffenbarger, Jr.
Stanford, California

Through innovative assessments of the relationships between a variety of risk factors and subsequent disease, Dr. Paffenbarger has contributed to the knowledge of the epidemiology of disease, including infectious diseases such as diarrheal diseases and polio, as well as mental and cardiovascular diseases and cancer.

Dr. H. William Scott, Jr.
Nashville, Tennessee

A surgeon of the highest standing, Dr. Scott has contributed to medical procedures for morbid obesity, peptic ulceration, and vascular surgery. He has also assumed a leadership role in academic surgery, serving in an official capacity in many professional organizations.

Dr. Wayne O. Southwick
New Haven, Connecticut

As a professor of orthopedic surgery at Yale University, Dr. Southwick is known for his rigorous teaching program. As a researcher, he has made many important contributions to surgery of the cervical spine and to practical biomechanics of the injured spine. Professor Fran E7ois Stoll Zurich, Switzerland Dr. Stoll has focused his research in applied psychology on the study of eye movements and scanning patterns and the ways in which those patterns can be used to improve reading mechanisms. He has also studied the cognitive underpinnings of reading skills.

Dr. Albert Stunkard
Philadelphia, Pennsylvania

Dr. Stunkard has acquired an international reputation in the study of psychiatric aspects of feeding and obesity. He has charted the effects of such social influences as food choice in public places and cultural ideals of proper weight.

Dr. Kameshwar C. Wali
Syracuse, New York

A theoretical high-energy physicist who has always worked closely with experimentalists, Professor Wali has published in a wide range of areas including form factors, SU (6), continuum theory, local duality and monopole theories with strings.

Dr. Torsten N. Wiesel
New York, New York

With Dr. David Hubel, Dr. Wiesel conducted innovative studies of the visual system at the cellular level. These studies, which have resulted in an understanding of how the brain is organized to process visual information, earned Drs. Wiesel and Hubel the 1981 Nobel Prize in medicine.

1979

Dr. Konrad Akert
Zurich, Switzerland

Dr. Akert, whose postdoctoral studies at Hopkins were in the Department of Physiology and Neurosurgery, has done research on experimental epilepsy, focal cortical seizures, the function of the cerebral cortex and basal ganglia in the control of movement, and the study of synaptic action as a function of time.

Dr. K. Frank Austen
Boston, Massachusetts

Work at Johns Hopkins in the early 1960s laid the foundation for Dr. Austen's studies of the mechanisms and mediators of immediate type hypersensitivity and of the complement system. He has been especially effective in providing a bridge between fundamental biochemistry of the mediator systems and their role in health and disease.

Dr. George W.A. Dick*
West Sussex, England

An epidemiologist, Dr. Dick has received numerous prizes and medals for his work in the virology of encephalitis, polio, hepatitis, multiple sclerosis, smallpox, whooping cough and the development of combined vaccines. His work with virus diseases including yellow fever, Mengovirus, and Marburgvirus has won widespread attention.

Dr. Thorstein Guthe*
Internationally famous as a microbiologist, Dr. Guthe has played a major role in studies of the epidemiological characteristics of occupationally related cancer.

Dr. Leo A. Kaprio
Copenhagen, Denmark

Serving on the scientific staff of the World Health Organization from the early years of that organization, Dr. Kaprio has pursued a distinguished career as an administrator in the field of international health.

Dr. Gunther Maier
Lahn-Giesseni, Federal Republic of Germany

Active in the synthesis of organic compounds, Dr. Maier has succeeded in isolating synthetically produced stable tetrahedrane and stable cyclobutadiene, compounds of great importance to theoretical chemistry because they challenge commonly held concepts of structure.

Dr. Michael P. McQuillen
Milwaukee, Wisconsin

As an academic and a neurologist, Dr. McQuillen has focused his research on myasthenia gravis and human neuromuscular disorders.

Dr. William H. Muller, Jr.
Charlottesville, Virginia

Dr. Muller's work in cardiac surgery, particularly on pulmonary hypertension in congenital cardiac disease, has made him a leader among American academic surgeons. Through his association with the American College of Surgeons, he has contributed to the development of surgical education on a national scale.

Dr. Susan A. Narang
Ottawa, Canada

Dr. Narang developed a modified triester method of synthesis for important polynucleotides, making possible the synthesis of biologically active operator DNA. These techniques have also been used to produce human insulin in bacteria, thus making available human proteins of medicinal importance.

Dr. Walther Noll
Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania

Dr. Noll's approach to continuum mechanics through the use of abstract algebraic concepts, the principles of invariance, and functional analysis has influenced the evolution of modern mechanics.

Dr. Anthony E. Pegg
Hershey, Pennsylvania

Dr. Pegg performed important research on enzymatic pathways for the biosynthesis of polyamines, the hormonal control of mitochondrial protein synthesis, and the androgenic regulation of polyamine production in the prostate gland.

Dr. David Smith*
A leader in the field of dysmorphology, Dr. Smith contributed to the understanding of embryologic derangement leading to congenital defects. He also made important contributions to the description of fetal alcohol syndrome, a problem whose magnitude has only recently been appreciated.

1978

Dr. Arthur Adel*
Dr. Adel pioneered the investigation of the infrared region of the solar spectrum, discovering the presence of many trace constituents in the earth's atmosphere, including nitrous oxide.

Dr. Robert Austrian
Philadelphia, Pennsylvania

An investigator of the molecular structure and biological characteristics of pneumo- coccus, Dr. Austrian has participated in the effort to develop a vaccine to prevent pneumonia.

Sir John Brotherston*
Knighted in 1974 by Queen Elizabeth for his many accomplishments in medicine and public health, Dr. Brotherston focused on preventive and community medicine. He also published many scholarly works on the history of medicine and public health.

Dr. Constantine M. Dafermos
Providence, Rhode Island

Dr. Dafermos' research in non-linear analysis of mechanical problems, including solid mechanics and shock waves, has displayed his ability to define the physical assumptions underlying the governing mathematical equations.

Dr. Dorland J. Davis*
Dr. Davis conducted major research in the fields of infectious diseases, particularly trypanosomiasis, psittacosis, hepatitis, and influenza.

Dr. Willard E. Goodwin
Los Angeles, California

A pioneer in the use of intestinal segments to reconstruct the urinary tract, Dr. Goodwin was one of the first urologists to engage in transplantation and is credited with the first use of corticosteroids for treating homograft rejection in human transplantation. Dr. Samir Najjar Beirut, Lebanon A specialist in pediatric endocrinology, Dr. Najjar established an outstanding department of pediatrics at the American University in Beirut.

Dr. Kenneth L. Pickrell*
Highly regarded for his expertise in the clinical practice of plastic surgery, Dr. Pickrell was an influential teacher of plastic surgeons and an international spokesperson for the field.

Dr. Oscar D. Ratnoff
Shaker Heights, Ohio

A professor of medicine at Case Western Reserve Medical School, Dr. Ratnoff was recognized as one of the world's experts in problems relating to the coagulation of blood.

Dr. Ray Trussel
New York, New York

For many years a leader in the delivery of preventive medical care, Dr. Trussel designed and developed a prototype of the health maintenance organization. He has also contributed to the fields of microbiology and epidemiology. Dr Verna Wright Leeds, England Pursuing a long-term interest in rheumatology, Dr. Wright has studied the mechanism of joint stiffness, extending that research to the management of patients with arthritis.

1977

Dr. Ko Kuei Chen*
Director of pharmacological research for Eli Lilly until his retirement in 1963, Dr. Chen isolated ephedrine from the herb Ma Huang and participated in its introduction to clinical use in the West. He also played a central role in developing a treatment for cyanide poisoning.

Dr. William H. Craib*
Dr. Craib revolutionized the interpretation of electrocardiograms through the rigorous application of mathematical and physical principles. Dr. John Knutson* While working with the U.S. Public Health Service, Dr. Knutson helped to develop and refine indices of dental disease. After his retirement, he was instrumental in forming the curriculum of the University of California's Dental School.

Dr. Frank McCapra
Falmer Brighton, England

Dr. McCapra has made important investigations in organic chemistry, the structure of antibiotics, the biosynthesis of alkaloids, and the mechanisms of chemiluminescence and bioluminescence.

Dr. Chamseddine M. Mofidi
Tehran, Iran

A major contributor to the field of tropical medicine and parasitology, Dr. Mofidi was awarded the Shousha Award by the World Health Organization in 1971.

Dr. Loren Pfeiffer
Morristown, New Jersey

Dr. Pfeiffer has studied the M F6ssbauer Effect and its use in the study of perturbations of nuclei in solids, the behavior of positrons in solids, and the detection of solar neutrinos.

Dr. Sami I. Said
Oklahoma City, Oklahoma

Dr. Said has been in the forefront of research on the metabolic functions of the lung and also is particularly recognized for his work on the vasoacti ve intestinal peptide.

Dr. Robert H. Williams*
Dr. Williams was a specialist in endocrinology, particularly the metabolic problems of diabetes mellitus. Among his many honors was the Minot Award of the American Medical Association.

Dr. Edward C. Zipf
Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania

Dr. Zipf has been a major contributor to the understanding of the molecular physics involved in planetary atmospheres. His highly regarded laboratory program in molecular interactions has supported important rocket research on the aurora borealis.

1976

Dr. Leroy Burney
Bryn Mawr, Pennsylvania

In the early stage of his career, Dr. Burney did research in venereal disease and therapy. He later became surgeon general of the U.S. Public Health Service.

Dr. Jackson I. Cope
Los Angeles, California

A leading authority on Renaissance drama, Dr. Cope has published many scholarly and influential books in the field.

Dr. Jacques Genest
Montreal, Canada

Dr. Genest is a highly regarded expert on renal physiology, an area in which he has conducted important clinical research.

Dr. Michael Kammen
Ithaca, New York

A professor of history at Cornell University, Dr. Kammen won the Pulitzer Prize in American history in 1973 for his book People of Paradox.

Dr. Fritz Kurt Kneubuhl
Zurich, Switzerland

An expert in infrared physics, Dr. Kneubuhl has conducted investigations in spectroscopy and laser research in the submillimeter and infrared region.

Dr. Seiichi Matsumoto*
Dr. Matsumoto was professor in the Institute for Virus Research of Kyoto University, where he studied the morphology of viruses, particularly of rabies viruses.

Dr Henry Gerard Schwartz
St. Louis, Missouri

Dr. Schwartz was professor of neurosurgery at Washington University School of Medicine and surgeon-in-chief of the Barnes and Allied Hospitals in St. Louis.

Dr. Milton Terris
South Burlington, Vermont

Dr. Terris is an authority on epidemiology, with special emphasis on research into the epidemiology of cancer.

Dr. David J. Weatherall
Oxford, England

A professor of clinical medicine at Oxford University, Dr. Weatherall is an expert in the fields of hematology and genetics.

1975

Dr. Harry Eagle*
The importance of Dr. Eagle's research on both syphilis and the growth requirements of cells in culture can be measured by the fact that a serological test for syphilis and a tissue culture medium bear his name.

Dr. Robert H. Felix*
The first director of the National Institute of Mental Health, Dr. Felix developed procedures for the awarding of research funds that set the pattern for government support of scientific ventures. He was also among the first to recognize psychiatric illness as a public health problem.

Dr. Elisabeth Liefmann-Keil*
Dr. Liefmann-Keil was one of the most distinguished German economists in the field of social policy, and was an influential adviser to West German governments in economics and social policy.

Dr. Maclyn McCarty
New York, New York

Dr. McCarty is highly regarded for his studies in the transformation of pneucoccal types, C-reactive protein, the biology and immunochemistry of streptococci, and the nature of rheumatic fever.

Dr. Carlos Monge
Lima, Peru

A widely respected authority in renal physiology, Dr. Monge is a professor of medicine at Cayetano Heredia University in Lima. Dr. Marjorie Nicholson* A student of Professor O.A. Lovejoy, Dr. Nicholson was herself a respected literary teacher and scholar, writing such books as Microscope and English Imagination, Breaking of the Circle, and Science and Imagination.

Dr. Mark Ravitch*
Dr. Ravitch was internationally renowned as a general, thoracic, and children's surgeon. He helped investigate many innovative techniques - including correction of pectus excavatum chest deformities and the use of mechanical stapling devices in major operations.

Dr. Merrill I. Skolnik
A national authority on radar, Dr. Skolnik published widely in the fields of radar, antennas, and gaseous electronics. Dr. Roger C. Walker Hamilton, Ontario, Canada Dr. Walker is known for his studies of the sedimentology of clastic rock, emphasizing the interpretation of sedimentary structures and facies, the lateral and vertical relationships of facies, and hence the reconstruction of ancient environments of deposition.

Dr. Myron E. Wegman
Ann Arbor, Michigan

In his extensive career in medical education and public health, Dr. Wegman has served as director of research and training for the New York City Health Department, as secretary general of the Pan American Health Organization, and as dean of the University of Michigan's School of Public Health.

Dr. C. Gordon Zubrod
Key Biscayne, Florida

Dr. Zubrod, who directed the Division of Cancer Treatment at the National Cancer Institute, brought cancer chemotherapy closer to the cure of leukemia and Hodgkin's disease, gaining its fuller acceptance as a tool in the control of all forms of cancer.

1974

Dr. Dana W. Atchley*
Dr. Atchley was a professor of clinical medicine at the College of Physicians and Surgeons, Columbia University, and recognized for his work on chemical problems in internal medicine, edema, and nephritis.

Dr. Eugene Braunwald
Boston, Massachusetts

A world leader in cardiovascular research, Dr. Braunwald was chief of the cardiology division at the National Heart Institute from 1960 to 1967. He has received numerous honors and awards throughout his career, including the Distinguished Research Achievement Award of the American Heart Association.

Dr. Marcolino Candau*
After graduating from the School of Hygiene and Public Health of Johns Hopkins and working as a public health official in his native Brazil, Dr. Candau joined the World Health Organization, serving as its director for almost two decades.

Dr. Lyman C. Craig*
A biochemist, Dr. Craig studied the structure of a number of important medical agents, including lysergic acid. As the inventor of the Craig machine for countercurrent distribution, he made an indispensable contribution to the anti-malarial effort by permitting the assay of impure preparations, which led in turn to the development of protein chemistry.

Dr. Phyllis M. Deane
Cambridge, England

Phyllis M. Deane is presently a reader in the Department of Economics and Politics at the University of Cambridge. She is an important contributor to two areas of empirical economics and economic history: the growth of the British economy since 1688, and national economic accounting. Dr. Deane is the author and editor of numerous books and articles.

Dr. Earl A. Evans, Jr.
Chicago, Illinois

As a biochemist at the University of Chicago, Dr. Evans conducted research on the mechanism of virus reproduction, the chemistry of insulin, the etiology of tetanus poisoning, and the metabolism of the malaria parasite.

Dr. Harold J. Evans
Corvallis, Oregon

Dr. Evans is a major contributor to the study of plant physiology. Among his many achievements is the Hoblitzelle National Award he earned for research on the need for and biochemical role of cobalt in organisms that fix nitrogen.

Dr. Arnaldo Gabaldon
Caracas, Venezuela

Dr. Gabaldon, who received his doctorate from the School of Public Health in 1935, has established an international reputation in the field of malaria control and eradication. A major force for the improvement of general health services in his native Venezuela, he has worked closely with the World Health Organization on many disease problems.

Dr. Thomas P.S. Powell*
An investigator of neuro-anatomy, Dr. Powell contributed to the understanding of the systems' connectivity within the central nervous system. Through his training of, and collaboration with, students and younger colleagues, Dr. Powell's influence has been worldwide.

Dr. Helen Van Vunakis
Waltham, Massachusetts

Dr. Van Vunakis has carried out extensive basic research on the structure of enzymes and their precursors, on bacterial viruses, and on the use of immunological procedures to detect small changes in nucleic acids.

1973

No new members were inducted into the society in 1973.

1972

Dr. Ray M. Bowen
Houston, Texas

Dr. Bowen was first to attack the extremely difficult problem of extending the concepts of rational thermodynamics to mixtures of diffusing, chemically reacting substances. The modern theory of non-equilibrium thermochemistry is based in significant part on his work.

Dr. Ezechiel G.D. Cohen
New York, New York

Dr. Cohen is professor of physics at Rockefeller University in New York, where his investigations in statistical physics have earned him widespread recognition.

Dr. David A.P. Evans
London, England

Dr. Evans' research and writ-ings have been influential in the field of pharmacogenetics.

Dr. J. Deryl Hart*
A nationally recognized surgeon, Dr. Hart was a professor of surgery at Duke University, of which institution he later became president.

Dr. Anna Martta Hietenan-Makela
Menlo Park, California

A specialist in petrology, structural geology, metamorphism, and metasomatism, Dr. Hietenan-Makela has distinguished herself in both field and laboratory work. After teaching at both Stanford University and Oregon State University, she served with the U.S. Geological Survey.

Dr. Abraham Horowitz
Chevy Chase, Maryland

Dr. Horowitz drafted plans for Chile's national health service, later becoming its first director general. In 1960 he became director of the Pan American Health Organization, where he served with distinction for many years.

Dr. George James*
As deputy commissioner and then commissioner of health with the New York State Health Department and as a medical educator, Dr. James contributed greatly through his writings to the fields of epidemiology and health administration.

Dr. Lawrence C. Kolb
Glenmont, New York

As professor of psychiatry and chairman of psychiatry at Columbia University, Dr. Kolb made important contributions to his field both as an investigator and as an administrator.

Dr. Alexander Langmuir
Chilmark, Massachusetts

Dr. Langmuir was the first director of the epidemiology program of the Communicable Disease Center of the U.S. Public Health Service (now known as the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention) and later director of the center itself. He has written extensively on all phases of epidemiology on a global basis.

Dr. Robert Q. Marston
Gainesville, Florida

Dr. Marston has made notable accomplishments in medical administration and education, serving as director of the National Institutes of Health and president of the University of Florida.

Dr. Chao-Cheng Wang
Houston, Texas

A mathematician of distinction, Dr. Wang has published widely and with great influence on general continuum mechanics, fluid crystals, memory principles, elasticity, dislocation theory, wave propagation, thermodynamics, and other subjects.

Dr. William H. Wriggins
Bronx, New York

Dr. Wriggins has made important contributions to the study of government within emerging states, notably with his book The Ruler's Imperative.

1971

Dr. Bernard Becker
St. Louis, Missouri

A leader in American ophthalmology, Dr. Becker is widely known for his important contributions to understanding the pathological mechanisms in glaucoma and for his discovery of new methods of treatment.

Dr. Francis P. Chinard
Montclair, New Jersey

Dr. Chinard has made valuable contributions in renal physiology and biochemistry, using radioactive metabolites to study a variety of renal and pulmonary processes important for the regulation of a constant internal ionic environment.

Dr. Ernest W. Lefever
Chevy Chase, Maryland

Dr. Lefever is generally recognized as a national leader in the field of foreign policy research, a position evidenced by the very high quality and wide breadth of his writings.

Dr. Thomas H. Maren
Gainesville, Florida

Dr. Maren has carried out many important pharmaco-logical investigations on the action of sulfonamides and the ability of certain compounds to inhibit carbonic anhydrase. This work led to a series of brilliant investigations of renal physiology.

Dr. Hans J. Morgenthau*
Dr. Morgenthau was an influential scholar of American foreign policy. Among the universities with which he was associated were the University of Chicago and City College of New York.

Dr. James E. Perkins*
A prominent epidemiologist, Dr. Perkins received many honors for his contributions to infectious disease problems, particularly tuberculosis. He was also active in international health initiatives.

Dr. Claud S. Rupert
Dallas, Texas

Dr. Rupert was a postdoctoral fellow in biochemistry at the School of Hygiene and Public Health when he discovered the photoreacting enzyme. Since that time, he has studied the way in which that enzyme repairs the damage in DNA induced by ultraviolet light.

Dr. Fred L. Soper*
Dr. Soper is credited with developing techniques of species eradication that exterminated a dangerous vector of malaria threatening all of tropical America. He also developed the eradication program that eliminated urban yellow fever from the Americas.

Dr. Heinrich P. Ursprung
Zurich, Switzerland

Truly exceptional in his breadth of knowledge and understanding of classical embryology and the chemical mechanics involved in the making of an embryo from an egg, Dr. Ursprung is also a gifted technician, teacher, and writer.

1970

Dr. George P. Berry*
For many years Dr. Berry was dean of the Harvard University Medical School, where he established himself as an imaginative and vigorous leader in American education.

Dr. Miguel Covian
Sao Paulo, Brazil

As professor and head of the Department of Physiology in the medical school at Ribeirao Preto, Sao Paolo State, Brazil, Dr. Covian developed one of South America's leading departments of physiology.

Dr. Gabrielle Donnay*
A crystallographer, Dr. Donnay conducted research that led to the discovery of several crystal structures.

Dr. Sol Goodgal
Philadelphia, Pennsylvania

A professor of microbiology at the University of Pennsylvania, Dr. Goodgal has made major contributions in the study of genetic transformation in bacteria.

Dr. John Woodland Hastings
Cambridge, Massachusetts

A professor of biology at Harvard University, Dr. Hastings was first to detail the function of the enzyme flavin in bacterial luminescence, and was later able to isolate and crystallize this enzyme.

Dr. Walter M. Holland
London, England

A professor in the Department of Community Medicine at St. Thomas' Hospital Medical School in London, Dr. Holland pioneered research on the effects of chronic bronchitis in infants and children.

Dr. Emile F. Holman*
Dr. Holman, was a professor of surgery at the Stanford University Medical School, and made important contributions in the field of vascular surgery.

Dr. I. Robert Lehman
Stanford, California

Dr. Lehman is a world authority on the biosynthesis, breakdown, and modification of nucleic acids.

Dr. Jotaro Masuzawa
Kamakura, Japan

One of Japan's leading oceanographers, Dr. Masuzawa has been the prime investigator of the Kuroshio, the North Pacific counterpart of the Gulf Stream.

Dr. Alfred R. Shands, Jr.*
Dr. Shands was surgeon-in-chief at the Alfred I. duPont Institute in Wilmington. His book on orthopedic surgery was a significant contribution to medical literature.

Dr. George W. Thorn
Boston, Massachusetts

Dr. Thorn, who served as physician-in-chief at the Peter Bent Brigham Hospital in Boston, initiated the earliest work in human kidney transplantation.

1969

Dr. Joseph Berkson*
For more than three decades, Dr. Berkson was one of America's foremost biometricians, enjoying a reputation as an outstanding scientific innovator, critic, and scholar.

Dr. James Bordley III*
Director of the Mary Imogene Basset Hospital in Cooperstown, New York, Dr. Bordley contributed significantly to medical research, primarily in the study of hypertension.

Dr. Edward J.M. Campbell
Hamilton, Ontario, Canada

Dr. Campbell has made important contributions in respiratory physiology and the mechanics of breathing.

Dr. Reuben M. Cherniak
Denver, Colorado

Medical director of the National Jewish Hospital in Denver, Dr. Cherniak is highly regarded for his administrative abilities as a medical educator and planner.

Dr. Leon E. Farhi
Buffalo, New York

Professor of physiology at State University of New York at Buffalo, Dr. Farhi has conducted extensive research in respiratory physiology.

Dr. Ralph Grasbeck
Helsinki, Finland

Dr. Grasbeck is widely recognized for his investigations into the mechanism of absorption of vitamin B-12 and his pioneering researches in the causes of pernicious anemia.

Dr. Charles A. Janeway*
Professor of pediatrics at Harvard and physician- in-chief at the Children's Hospital Medical Center in Boston, Dr. Janeway was widely respected as one of the country's foremost pediatricians.

Dr. Chester S. Keefer*
Dr. Keefer was noted for his investigations of infectious diseases and his contributions to the nation's health as a frequent government adviser.

Dr. William P. Longmire, Jr.
Los Angeles, California

Dr. Longmire pursued a distinguished career in surgery - including a residency at Hopkins under Dr. Alfred Blalock - and conducted outstanding research in transplantation biology.

Dr. John L. Lumley
Ithaca, New York

Dr. Lumley has conducted theoretical and experimental research in the basic study of turbulent flow, and is well known for his pioneering measurements of turbulence in non-Newtonian liquids.

Dr. Paul E. Potter
Cincinnati, Ohio

Dr. Potter's creative and original application of statistical methods to geologic research and his field studies on sandstone in the Illinois basin have produced a masterful synthesis of that area's geologic history during late Paleozoic times.

Dr. Anthony G. San Pietro
Bloomington, Indiana

Dr. San Pietro has conducted important research in biochemistry, especially on photosynthesis, including the isolation of important organic intermediates in the photosynthetic process.

Dr. Barnes Woodhall*
Known for his investigations of chemotherapy and brain tumors, Dr. Woodhall was also a leader in medical education.

Dr. Clinton N. Woolsey*
An outstanding neurologist, Dr. Woolsey conducted extensive research in mapping the cortical sensory areas of the brain.