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About the JHU Animal Care and Use Program

Rodent Drug Formulary: Quick Reference Guide

A complete guide that includes other species can be found in the JHU "Blue Book."

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Injectable Anesthetics / Inhalation Anesthetics / Analgesics

Injectable Anesthetics

DRUGDOSE (mg/kg) and ROUTECOMMENTSCOMMON APPLICATIONS

Ketamine +
Xylazine

80-100 (K) +
5-10 (X)
IP

60-100 min anesthetic depth.  May not be adequate for major procedures.

Inhibits blinking so should use ocular lubrication to prevent corneal ulceration.

Brain cannulas or acute brain injections

Brain lesions

Arterial or venous catherizations

Castration and ovariectomy

Ketamine +
Xylazine +
Acepromazine

100 (K) +
  20 (X) +
    3 (A)
IP

Excellent survivability and reliable depth of anesthesia compared to other combinations.  Dose should be adapted to mouse strain being used.Same as above

Ketamine +
Dexmedetomidine

100 (K) +
0.5 (D)
IP

May not produce adequate anesthesia for major procedures. Can be partially reversed with Atipamezole (0.1-1.0 IM or IP).

Retro-orbital bleeding
Use with topical proparicaine ophthalmic

Sodium Pentobarbital
 

50-60
IP

Recommended for terminal/acute procedures.  Duration of effect is highly variable.

Euthanize and harvest

Trans-cardial perfusions

Tribromoethanol
(Avertin)
250-500
IP
Special preparation and storage required. Adverse outcomes likely with repeated use. 

Inhalation Anesthetics
DRUGDOSE (mg/kg) and ROUTECOMMENTSCOMMON APPLICATIONS

RECOMMENDED
Isoflurane

1-3%

Good general anesthetic with high safety margin.

Long-procedures- Require a precision vaporizer for delivery.

Short procedures- An open-drop exposure method can be used.

Long procedures

Short procedures:
• Tail biopsy
• Retro-orbital bleeding

EtherTo effectHighly discouraged due to distress to animal and potential for flammability

Euthanize and harvest

Tail biopsy


Analgesics
DRUGDOSE (mg/kg) and ROUTECOMMENTSCOMMON APPLICATIONS
RECOMMENDED
Buprenorphine

0.05-0.10 SC, IP

Takes 1 h to be effective so should be given pre-emptively

Duration of effect is 4-6 h

NSAID is recommended for continued pain relief

Opioid- Requires DEA license

For mild to moderate pain.
Carprofen
(Rimadyl)
4-5 SC

NSAID

Duration of effect is 24 h

 
Meloxicam1-2
SC, IM, PO

NSAID

Duration of effect is 24 h

 

Rat
Injectable Anesthetics / Inhalation Anesthetics / Analgesics / Local Anesthetics/Analgesics

Injectable Anesthetics
DRUGDOSE (mg/kg) and ROUTECOMMENTSCOMMON APPLICATIONS

RECOMMENDED
Ketamine +
Xylazine

75-100 (K) +
  5-10 (X)
IM or IP

IM injection can cause tissue necrosis

Brain cannulas or acute brain injections

Brain lesions

Arterial or venous catherizations

Castration and ovariectomy

Ketamine +
Dexmedetomidine

75-100 (K) +
 0.15 (D)
IM or IP

May be partially reversed with Atipamezole (0.1-1.0 mg/kg, IM or IP) 

Sodium Pentobarbital
 

40-50
IP

Recommended for acute/terminal procedures.

If used for survival surgery should use supplemental analgesia.

Euthanize and harvest

Trans-cardial perfusions


Inhalation Anesthetics
DRUGDOSE (mg/kg) and ROUTECOMMENTSCOMMON APPLICATIONS
RECOMMENDED
Isoflurane

Long procedures-
2-5% induction
0.25-3%
maintenance

Short procedures-
To effect

Good general anesthetic

Long procedures- must use precision vaporizer

Short procedures- use open-drop exposure method

All

Ether

To effect

Not recommended due to irritant properties and flammability

Euthanize and harvest

Tail biopsy


Analgesics
DRUGDOSE (mg/kg) and ROUTECOMMENTSCOMMON APPLICATIONS
Buprenorphine0.01-0.05
IM or SC

Takes 1 h to be effective so should be given pre-emptively

Duration of effect is 4-6 h

NSAID is recommended for continued pari relief

Opioid- Requires DEA license

For mild to moderate pain
Carprofen
(Rimadyl)
5-10 SC, PO

NSAID

Once daily

 
Meloxicam

1-2 PO, SC

NSAID

Once daily for up to 3 days

 

Local Anesthetics/Analgesics
DRUGDOSE (mg/kg) and ROUTECOMMENTSCOMMON APPLICATIONS
Bupivicaine

Dilute to 0.25%, should not exceed a total dose of 8 mg/kg
SC or intra-incisional

Use as a local anesthetic, slow onset but duration of action is 4-8 h. Do not give IV. 
Lidocaine

Dilute to 0.5%, should not exceed 7 mg/kg
SC or intra-incisional

Use as local anesthetic, fast onset but duration of action is less than 1 h. 
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